Topic Archives: Employment Projections

Celebrating the International Year of the Periodic Table

The United Nations (U.N.) proclaims 2019 the International Year of the Periodic Table of Chemical Elements. As Jean-Paul Ngome-Abiaga, coordinator for the celebration of the Year at the U.N., says:

“The periodic table of chemical elements is one of the most important and influential achievements in modern science reflecting the essence not only of chemistry, but also of physics, biology and other disciplines.”

To join in the celebration of the 150th anniversary of the table’s creation by Dmitry Mendeleev, BLS has created our own periodic table! Since we agree with the U.N. coordinator, our table goes beyond chemistry and includes Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) occupations. Don’t worry, our table includes chemists, too. Workers in STEM occupations use science and mathematics to understand how the world works and to solve problems. We thank the Nebraska Department of Labor for the original idea for this table.

The Standard Occupational Classification System Policy Committee has identified several hundred STEM occupations. Here are some interesting BLS facts about STEM occupations:

  • There were nearly 8.9 million STEM jobs in May 2017, representing 6.2 percent of U.S. employment.
  • Employment in STEM occupations grew by 14.5 percent, or 1.1 million jobs, between May 2009 and May 2017, compared with 8.8 percent net growth in non-STEM occupations.
  • Employment in STEM occupations is projected to increase by 10.9 percent from 2016 to 2026, and this growth is expected to result in 1.0 million new jobs.

Our BLS Periodic Table of STEM occupations highlights a couple dozen jobs.

Periodic Table of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics occupations

Want more STEM information?

Check out these STEM products from BLS:

Contact our projections information folks by phone, (202) 691-5700, or email.

Whatever your occupational information needs — whether STEM or non-STEM — we have a stat (or several) for that!

Why This Counts: What Types of Jobs Are in the U.S. Labor Market?

Ever wonder how many accountants there are in the United States? Or how much an occupational therapist gets paid? Or maybe you already have a job, but you’re thinking about working somewhere new. What areas or industries have the highest pay for your occupation?

We have the answers to these questions, plus much, much more!

The Occupational Employment Statistics (OES) survey publishes hundreds of thousands of estimates for employment and wages covering around 800 detailed occupations in 600 areas spanning all 50 states, the District of Columbia, and three territories: Guam, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands.

That sounds impressive, but what does it mean? It means you can see employment and wages for occupations where you live or in the type of business where you work. OES provides specific information on the types of jobs found in each industry or area and their wages.

OES building blocks: occupation and industry

Before we dive into the deep end with data, let’s wade in a little by clarifying some terms. In our everyday lives, occupation and industry may be interchangeable, but in fact occupation refers to the worker and industry refers to the employer.

Occupation refers to what people do and the jobs people have. BLS uses the Standard Occupational Classification system to code workers into more than 800 different occupations based on their job duties. This system is the standard used by federal agencies to classify workers into occupations.

Industry refers to the types of businesses where people work. BLS uses the North American Industry Classification System to code business establishments into industries based on what they produce or sell. This also is the standard used by federal agencies to classify business establishments into industries.

Because we use these federally mandated coding structures, data users can easily compare OES data with other federal statistical programs.

Why does OES data count?

For this blog post, we will only focus on national level data. We’re saving state and area data for a later post. Let’s take a closer look at the occupational data for the United States and in certain industries.

People count on OES data to see employment by occupation

Did you know that the largest occupation in the United States is retail salespersons? This chart shows the 10 largest occupations, which together account for more than one in five jobs in the United States.

Employment in the largest occupations, May 2017

Editor’s note: Data for this chart are available in the table below.

According to May 2017 OES data, there were 4.4 million retail salespersons in the United States, accounting for 3 percent of all jobs. The largest three occupations combined account for 8 percent of all U.S. jobs and also include cashiers and combined food preparation and serving workers (each 3.6 million).

We also have data on some of the smallest occupations in the country, such as geographers, watch repairers, astronomers, fabric menders, and mine shuttle car operators. Each of these occupations has fewer than 5,000 jobs.

People count on OES data for wages by occupation

Eight of the 10 largest occupations in the United States had below-average wages. Retail salespersons ($27,460), combined food preparation and serving workers ($21,230), and cashiers ($22,130) had annual mean wages significantly below the average for all occupations of $50,620.

Registered nurses ($73,550) and general and operations managers ($123,460) were the largest occupations with above-average wages.

Annual mean wages for the largest occupations, May 2017

Editor’s note: Data for this chart are available in the table below.

People count on OES data to compare occupations

Occupational employment and wage information is useful to students and schools making investments in education. They can see which fields have the best prospects for getting a job with good wages.

The pairs of related occupations in the table below show wages are generally higher for the occupation with more education and training requirements. In many cases employment is higher in the occupation with more education or training, and in some cases employment is lower.

 Median wage and employment data by select occupations, May 2017

Occupation Median hourly wage Employment
Mechanical Drafters $26.50 58,190
Mechanical Engineers $41.29 291,290
Cooks, Restaurant $12.10 1,276,510
Chefs and Head Cooks $22.09 131,430
Shampooers $9.77 13,330
Hairdressers, Hairstylists, and Cosmetologists $11.95 351,910
Retail Salespersons $11.16 4,442,090
First-Line Supervisors of Retail Sales Workers $18.54 1,200,180
Bookkeeping, Accounting, and Auditing Clerks $18.87 1,532,340
Accountants and Auditors $33.34 1,241,000
Dental Assistants $18.09 337,160
Dental Hygienists $35.61 211,600
Light Truck or Delivery Services Drivers $15.12 877,670
Heavy and Tractor-Trailer Truck Drivers $20.42 1,748,140

People count on OES data to see the types of jobs in each industry

OES data can complement other BLS data by showing the different types of jobs in each industry. For example, healthcare and social assistance is one of the largest industries in the United States. OES data show the types of jobs in this industry. This chart shows the 10 largest occupations in the health care and social assistance industry.

Largest occupations in health care and social assistance, May 2017

Editor’s note: Data for this chart are available in the table below.

Although many of the largest occupations in health care and social assistance are concentrated in this industry, some of the largest occupations in this sector, such as childcare workers, general office clerks, and receptionists and information clerks, can be found in many other industries as well. Jobseekers or workers wanting to increase their wage can use OES data to see which industries pay more by occupation.

The top paying industries for receptionists and information clerks include utilities ($34,780), construction ($31,070), and manufacturing ($30,900), in addition to health care and social assistance ($30,840). According to the May 2017 OES estimates, the national average annual wage for receptionists and information clerks was $29,640.

Industries with the highest annual mean wages for receptionists and information clerks, May 2017

Editor’s note: Data for this chart are available in the table below.

Who uses OES data?

Employers frequently use OES data for their industry. Business startups and entrepreneurs use the data to help determine typical staffing needs and expenses for businesses similar to theirs. Established businesses use occupational wage distributions to ensure they remain competitive and retain and attract good workers. In addition, OES data are used by students, jobseekers, and career advisors to help with career planning.

You may also encounter OES data in other places, because the data are used by a number of other federal agencies. The BLS Employment Projections program uses industry staffing patterns and wages from OES to produce estimates of future job growth. The U.S. Department of Labor Office of Foreign Labor Certification uses OES data to set prevailing wages for visa applicants. The Bureau of Economic Analysis uses OES wages to estimate social security receipts. The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services use the data to set reimbursement rates for health care providers. These are just a few of the ways OES data are used by other government programs and agencies.

 Want to know more?

You can further explore all of the reasons why OES data count at the OES homepage. Read the latest OES news release, get answers to frequently asked questions and check out our maps. Also, contact the OES information staff with questions by email or call (202) 691-6569.

Use these gold-standard data to learn more about your current occupation or to find out about new ones. Whatever your occupational employment question, “We have a stat for that!”

Employment in the largest occupations, May 2017
Occupation Employment
Retail salespersons 4,442,090
Combined food preparation and serving workers, including fast food 3,576,220
Cashiers 3,564,920
Office clerks, general 2,967,620
Registered nurses 2,906,840
Customer service representatives 2,767,790
Laborers and freight, stock, and material movers, hand 2,711,320
Waiters and waitresses 2,584,220
Secretaries and administrative assistants, except legal, medical, and executive 2,254,820
General and operations managers 2,212,200
Annual mean wages for the largest occupations, May 2017
Occupation Annual mean wage
General and operations managers $123,460
Registered nurses 73,550
All Occupations 50,620
Secretaries and administrative assistants, except legal, medical, and executive 36,920
Customer service representatives 35,650
Office clerks, general 33,910
Laborers and freight, stock, and material movers, hand 29,690
Retail salespersons 27,460
Waiters and waitresses 25,280
Cashiers 22,130
Combined food preparation and serving workers, including fast food 21,230
Largest occupations in health care and social assistance, May 2017
Occupation Employment
Registered nurses 2,557,530
Personal care aides 1,944,270
Nursing assistants 1,344,390
Home health aides 783,910
Medical assistants 614,180
Licensed practical and licensed vocational nurses 608,080
Medical secretaries 539,680
Receptionists and information clerks 478,800
Office clerks, general 364,060
Childcare workers 330,090
Industries with the highest annual mean wages for receptionists and information clerks, May 2017
Industry Annual mean wage
Utilities $34,780
Management of companies and enterprises 31,970
Finance and insurance 31,180
Transportation and warehousing 31,110
Wholesale trade 31,080
Construction 31,070
Manufacturing 30,900
Health care and social assistance 30,840
Federal, state, and local government, excluding state and local schools and hospitals and the U.S. Postal Service 30,710
Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction 30,710

Why This Counts: What Does the Future Hold for the Workforce?

You or someone you know may be deciding on a career, whether just starting out in the workforce or looking to change jobs. If so, you may have questions about potential careers. BLS employment projections and our Occupational Outlook Handbook can help answer them.

“Our team highlights the Occupational Outlook Handbook in their workshops and in their individual coaching sessions with students as a key resource for them to explore, expand, and understand all of their options. Our team also uses the information to assess job trends so we can help students prepare for the job market of the future.” — George Washington University, Center for Career Services

Even if you aren’t looking for a career change, you may be interested in a broader picture of the future of the U.S. economy and workforce. You can find this information, and much more, from the Employment Projections program.

What’s a projection and how do you make one?

A projection is an estimate of future conditions or trends based on a study of past and present trends.

Every 2 years, the Employment Projections program publishes 10-year projections of national employment by industry and occupation based on analysis of historical and current economic data. The purpose is to offer some insight into questions about the future growth or decline of industries and occupations.

We use historical and current BLS data primarily from the Current Population Survey, the Current Employment Statistics survey, and the Occupational Employment Statistics survey. You can see an overview of our six-step projections process.

BLS is working toward releasing the projections each year, rather than every 2 years.

See our video on “Understanding BLS Employment Projections.”

What are some data highlights for the 2016–26 projections?

The most recent labor force projections tell us about the impact of the aging of the population.

  • As the large baby-boom generation (those born between 1946 and 1964) grows older, the overall labor force participation rate is projected to be lower than in previous decades. The labor force participation rate is the share of people working or looking for work. We project the rate to be 61.0 percent in 2026, compared with 62.8 percent in 2016 and 66.2 percent in 2006. This is because older people have lower labor force participation rates than younger age groups.
  • The 55-and-older age group is projected to make up nearly one-quarter of the labor force in 2026, up from 22.4 percent in 2016 and 16.8 percent in 2006.
  • The share held by the youngest age group—ages 16 to 24—is projected to continue to decline as they focus on their education.

Percent distribution of the labor force by age in 1996, 2006, 2016, and projected 2026

Editor’s note: Data for this chart are available in the table below.

We can view employment projections in terms of the change in the number of jobs and as a percent change. The projected percent change represents how fast an occupation or industry is projected to grow.

  • The chart below includes the top ten fastest-growing occupations from 2016 to 2026.
  • Five of the occupations are related to healthcare, which makes sense with a population that is growing older.
  • The top two fastest-growing occupations install, repair, and maintain solar panels and wind turbines. These two occupations are small in numbers but are both projected to double in size over the decade, reflecting the current interest in alternative forms of energy.
  • The remaining occupations fall into what is known as STEM (science, technology, engineering, and math).

Fastest-growing occupations, projected, 2016–26

Editor’s note: Data for this chart are available in the table below.

What other information can you get from the Employment Projections program?

BLS also provides information on the education and training path for occupations. What education do people usually need to enter an occupation? Does the occupation typically need work experience in a related occupation? Is specific on-the-job training typically needed? BLS provides this information for every detailed occupation for which we publish projections. We describe the typical path to entry in the base year of the projections. This education and training information, with the occupational projections and wages, form the basis of the Occupational Outlook Handbook.

“It [the Occupational Outlook Handbook] is a great jumping off point. I use it to go more in depth with students. We look at what the career entails, and which fields really appeal to them.” — Gail Grand, College Counselor, Westlake Village, California

What is the Occupational Outlook Handbook?

The Occupational Outlook Handbook has been around for nearly 70 years, and it is a trusted (and free!) source of career information. It incorporates BLS data and lots of other information about careers, along with tools to find the information you need. Another publication, Career Outlook, is published throughout the year and provides practical information about careers for students, career counselors, jobseekers, and others planning careers.

“The Handbook has been an effective tool during our strategic planning process at the Foundation. We’ve used the data to design an investment strategy that will focus on linking opportunity youth with promising careers in the region. OOH enabled us to sync up resource allocation with program development.” — Kristopher Smith, Foundation for the Mid-South

Want to know about projections for your state or local area?

While BLS makes projections at the national level, each state makes projections for states and local areas. Find information on state projections at Projections Central.

Want more Employment Projections information?

Check out the latest news release. Head to the Frequently Asked Questions to learn more. Or contact the information folks by phone, (202) 691-5700, or email.

Changing jobs or starting a new career is a big decision. Use these gold-standard BLS data to help you make smart decisions, which could help you for years to come. Don’t be a buggy whip maker when everyone is riding in a self-driving car—or a rocket ship!

Percent distribution of the labor force by age
Year 16 to 24 25 to 34 35 to 44 45 to 54 55 and older
1996 15.8% 25.3% 27.3% 19.7% 11.9%
2006 14.8 21.5 23.7 23.2 16.8
2016 13.3 22.3 20.6 21.3 22.5
Projected 2026 11.7 22.1 22.2 19.2 24.8
Fastest-growing occupations, projected, 2016–26
Occupation Percent change
Solar photovoltaic installers 104.9%
Wind turbine service technicians 96.3
Home health aides 47.3
Personal care aides 38.6
Physician assistants 37.3
Nurse practitioners 36.1
Statisticians 33.8
Physical therapist assistants 31.0
Software developers, applications 30.7
Mathematicians 29.7

Celebrating Our Teachers on World Teachers’ Day!

Teachers of America (and the world), we celebrate you! To commemorate World Teachers’ Day on October 5, I want to share some data about today’s teachers and reflect back on how my own teachers influenced me on my path to become the Acting Commissioner of the Bureau of Labor Statistics. We’ll also include quotes from some amazing teachers on what inspires them to teach.

I love seeing my students grow and the excitement in their eyes when they’re learning. Adrienne Davenport, Preschool teacher, Portland, Oregon

I always enjoyed math class, although college-level calculus proved to be a challenge. One of my favorite teachers taught me both geometry and calculus at Wilbur Cross High School in New Haven, Connecticut. (Home of the Governors!) What I mostly remember was how patient she was with everyone in the class. She wanted everyone to succeed and went out of her way to make everyone feel special. Hers was the last class of the day, and we’d often stay late just to soak up a little more calculus. I guess geek-dom starts early.

Math is something I like and it’s rewarding for me to be able to show students that math isn’t scary and that they’re smart enough to do it. Nikita Midamba, Math teacher, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

I’m not sure I’d ever heard of economics or statistics back in high school, and I certainly had never heard of the Bureau of Labor Statistics. But I had a good foundation in math, which I put to use every day. I even got pretty good at using a slide rule (kids, you can search for it on the Internet). But that’s a story for another day.

I love teaching for a lot of reasons. Wanting my students to have more access to opportunities in life is what keeps pushing me. Lydia Shelly, High school math teacher, Glendale, Arizona

Oh, economics. I guess I stumbled onto that in college, and was fortunate to have great professors and interesting topics like labor economics, urban economics, economic history, and even Soviet economics. But the one I remember most fondly was “Economics of the Arts,” which explored movies, theater, music, museums, and more. No wonder I came to work in a city brimming with the arts.

I love teaching, especially beginners. When you see students finally connect with a dance move they’ve been trying for weeks, they get so excited. That’s rewarding. Stephanie Yezek-Jolivet, Dance teacher

Enough of me reminiscing. Now let’s get to the facts. I’m happy to report BLS has lots of data about teachers. Table 1 shows employment, wages, and projected growth for a few teacher categories. Links go to the Occupational Outlook Handbook, which provides career information on duties, education and training, pay, and outlook for hundreds of occupations, including, of course, teachers!

Table 1: Employment, projected outlook, and wages for teachers
Occupation Employment, 2016 Employment growth, projected 2016–26 (percent) Employment change, projected 2016–26 Median annual wage, May 2017
Preschool teachers 478,500 10% (Faster than average) 50,100 $28,990
Kindergarten and elementary school teachers 1,565,300 7% (As fast as average) 116,300 $56,900
Middle school teachers 630,300 8% (As fast as average) 47,300 $57,720
High school teachers 1,018,700 8% (As fast as average) 76,800 $59,170
Special education teachers 439,300 8% (As fast as average) 33,300 $58,980
Career and technical education teachers 219,400 4% (Slower than average) 7,700 $55,240
Postsecondary teachers 1,314,400 15% (Much faster than average) 197,800 $76,000
Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Employment Projections program and Occupational Employment Statistics survey.

I’ve saved the best for last! Time to drill down and look at some local data. Using data from our Occupational Employment Statistics program, let’s look at the Secondary School Teachers page as an example. Scroll down the page and you will see six maps and charts, which include state and metropolitan area data for employment, concentration of jobs and average wages of secondary school teachers. To highlight some of the data:

  • Where is high school teacher employment?
    • Texas has the highest employment of secondary school teachers (113,120) with California coming in second (107,680).
    • Wyoming is the state with the lowest number of high school teachers (1,860) and Vermont has the second lowest number (2,120).
    • New York-Jersey City-White Plains, New York-New Jersey, Metropolitan area has the most employment (42,350).
  • How do wages differ?
    • Average annual wages of secondary school teachers ranged from the lowest in Oklahoma ($41,880) and South Dakota ($41,980) to the highest in Alaska ($85,420) and New York ($83,360).
    • The highest paid area for secondary school teachers is Nassau County-Suffolk County, New York, Metropolitan Division with an average annual wage of $101,110. The lowest paid area for secondary school teachers is Sierra Vista-Douglas, Arizona, at $39,590.
  • Where are the highest and lowest concentrations of secondary school teacher jobs?
    • If you look at the employment per thousand jobs, the state of Missouri has the highest number (9.9 teacher jobs for every 1,000 jobs), with Maine (9.6), Texas (9.5) and Ohio (9.4) close behind.
    • On the low end of the scale are Nevada (4.4 teacher jobs for every 1,000 jobs), Washington (4.5) and the District of Columbia (4.6).

To learn more about teacher data available from the Occupational Employment Statistics program, see Education, Training, and Library Occupation Profiles. For a list of all industries and occupations, see the Create Customized Tables function.

Want more information?

Whatever you do in life, you may have a teacher (or two!) to thank for guiding you on your path. So join with me and say, “Thank you teachers for all you do!”

Labor Day 2018 Fast Facts

About 92 percent of civilian workers with access to paid holidays receive Labor Day as a paid holiday. Before you set out for that long holiday weekend, take a moment to look at some fast facts we’ve compiled that show the current picture of our labor market.

Working

Working or Looking for Work

  • The civilian labor force participation rate—the share of the population working or looking for work—was 62.9 percent in July. The rate had trended down from the 2000s through the early 2010s, but it has remained fairly steady since 2014.

Not Working

  • The unemployment rate was 3.9 percent in July. After 6 months at 4.1 percent, the rate has had offsetting movements in recent months. In May, the rate hit its lowest point, 3.8 percent, since April 2000.
  • In July, there were 1.4 million long-term unemployed (those jobless for 27 weeks or more). This represented 22.7 percent of the unemployed, down from a peak of 45.5 percent in April 2010 but still above the 16-percent share seen in late 2006.
  • Among the major worker groups, the unemployment rate for teenagers was 13.1 percent in July, while the rates were 3.4 percent for adult men and 3.7 percent for adult women. The unemployment rate was 6.6 percent for Blacks or African Americans, 4.5 percent for Hispanics or Latinos, 3.1 percent for Asians, and 3.4 percent for Whites.

Job Openings

Pay and Benefits

  • Average weekly earnings rose by 3.0 percent between July 2017 and July 2018; adjusted for inflation, real average weekly earnings are up 0.1 percent during this period.
  • Civilian compensation (wage and benefit) costs increased 2.8 percent between June 2017 and June 2018; adjusted for inflation, real compensation costs decreased 0.1 percent during this period.
  • Paid leave benefits are available to most private industry workers. The access rates in March 2018 were 71 percent for sick leave, 77 percent for vacation, and 78 percent for holidays.
  • In March 2018, civilian workers paid 20 percent of the cost of medical care premiums for single coverage and 32 percent for family coverage.

Productivity

  • Labor productivity—output per hour worked—in the U.S. nonfarm business sector grew 1.1 percent in 2017, continuing the historically below-average pace seen since the Great Recession. Some industries had impressive growth, however, including wireless telecommunications carriers (11.1 percent) and electronics and appliance stores (9 percent).
  • Multifactor productivity growth in the private nonfarm business sector recovered in 2017, rising 0.9 percent after falling 0.6 percent in 2016. Labor input for multifactor productivity—measured using the combined effects of hours worked and labor composition—grew 2.0 percent in 2017, outpacing the long-term 1987–2017 growth for labor input by 0.5 percentage points.

Safety and Health

  • In 2017, 14.3 percent of all workers were exposed to hazardous contaminants. The use of personal protective equipment was required for 11.8 percent of workers.

Education

  • Occupations that typically require a bachelor’s degree for entry made up 21.5 percent of employment. This educational category includes registered nurses, teachers at the kindergarten through secondary levels, and many management, business and financial operations, computer, and engineering occupations.
  • For 18 of the 30 occupations projected to grow the fastest between 2016 and 2026, some postsecondary education is typically required for entry.

Unionization

  • The union membership rate—the percent of wage and salary workers who were members of unions—was 10.7 percent in 2017, unchanged from 2016. In 1983, the first year for which comparable union data are available, the union membership rate was 20.1 percent.
  • Total employer compensation costs for union workers were $47.65 and for nonunion workers $32.87 per employee hour worked. The cost of benefits accounted for 40.4 percent of total compensation or $19.23 for union workers and 29.1 percent or $9.56 for nonunion workers.

Work Stoppages

  • In the first 7 months of 2018, there were 445,000 workers involved in work stoppages that began this year. This is the largest number of workers involved in stoppages since 2000, when 394,000 workers were involved. There have been 12 stoppages beginning this year, which surpassed the 7 recorded in all of 2017.

From an American worker’s first job to retirement and everything in between, BLS has a stat for that! Want to learn more? Follow us on Twitter @BLS_gov.