Topic Archives: Employment Projections

Labor Day 2019 Fast Facts

I have been Commissioner of Labor Statistics for 5 months now, and I continue to be amazed by the range and quality of data we publish about the U.S. labor market and the well-being of American workers. As we like to say at BLS, we really do have a stat for that! We won’t rest on what we have done, however. We continue to strive for more data and better data to help workers, jobseekers, students, businesses, and policymakers make informed decisions. Labor Day is a good time to reflect on where we are. This year is the 125th anniversary of celebrating Labor Day as a national holiday. Before you set out to enjoy the long holiday weekend, take a moment to look at some fast facts we’ve compiled on the current picture of our labor market.

Working

Working or Looking for Work

  • The civilian labor force participation rate—the share of the population working or looking for work—was 63.0 percent in July 2019. The rate had trended down from the 2000s through the early 2010s, but it has remained fairly steady since 2014.

Not Working

  • The unemployment rate was 3.7 percent in July. In April and May, the rate hit its lowest point, 3.6 percent, since 1969.
  • In July, there were 1.2 million long-term unemployed (those jobless for 27 weeks or more). This represented 19.2 percent of the unemployed, down from a peak of 45.5 percent in April 2010 but still above the 16-percent share in late 2006.
  • Among the major worker groups, the unemployment rate for teenagers was 12.8 percent in July 2019, while the rates were 3.4 percent for both adult women and adult men. The unemployment rate was 6.0 percent for Blacks or African Americans, 4.5 percent for Hispanics or Latinos, 2.8 percent for Asians, and 3.3 percent for Whites.

Job Openings

Pay and Benefits

  • Average weekly earnings rose by 2.6 percent from July 2018 to July 2019. After adjusting for inflation in consumer prices, real average weekly earnings were up 0.8 percent during this period.
  • Civilian compensation (wage and benefit) costs increased 2.7 percent in June 2019 from a year earlier. After adjusting for inflation, real compensation costs rose 1.1 percent over the year.
  • Paid leave benefits are available to most private industry workers. The access rates in March 2018 were 71 percent for sick leave, 77 percent for vacation, and 78 percent for holidays.
  • About 91 percent of civilian workers with access to paid holidays receive Labor Day as a paid holiday.
  • In March 2018, civilian workers with employer-provided medical plans paid 20 percent of the cost of medical care premiums for single coverage and 32 percent for family coverage.

Productivity

  • Labor productivity—output per hour worked—in the U.S. nonfarm business sector grew 1.8 percent from the second quarter of 2018 to the second quarter of 2019.
  • Some industries had much faster growth in 2018, including electronic shopping and mail-order houses (10.6 percent) and wireless telecommunications carriers (10.1 percent).
  • Multifactor productivity in the private nonfarm business sector rose 1.0 percent in 2018. That growth is 0.2 percentage point higher than the average annual rate of 0.8 percent from 1987 to 2018.

Safety and Health

Unionization

  • The union membership rate—the percent of wage and salary workers who were members of unions—was 10.5 percent in 2018, down by 0.2 percentage point from 2017. In 1983, the first year for which comparable union data are available, the union membership rate was 20.1 percent.

Work Stoppages

  • In the first 7 months of 2019, there have been 307,500 workers involved in major work stoppages that began this year. (Major work stoppages are strikes or lockouts that involve 1,000 or more workers and last one full shift or longer.) For all of 2018, there were 485,200 workers involved in major work stoppages, the largest number since 1986, when about 533,100 workers were involved.
  • There have been 15 work stoppages beginning in 2019. For all of 2018, 20 work stoppages began during the year.

Education

  • Occupations that typically require a bachelor’s degree for entry made up 22 percent of employment in 2018. This educational category includes registered nurses, teachers at the kindergarten through secondary levels, and many management, business and financial operations, computer, and engineering occupations.
  • For 18 of the 30 occupations projected to grow the fastest between 2016 and 2026, some postsecondary education is typically required for entry. Be sure to check out our updated employment projections, covering 2018 to 2028, that we will publish September 4!

From an American worker’s first job to retirement and everything in between, BLS has a stat for that! Want to learn more? Follow us on Twitter @BLS_gov.

How Are Our Older Workers Doing?

May is Older Americans Month. Who are we calling old?

  • The Bureau of Labor Statistics, for one. Next month we will celebrate our 135th birthday. Now that’s old! And we’ve been providing gold-standard information the entire time.
  • Today we are focusing on people age 65 and older.

In honor of Older Americans Month, let’s examine some fast facts about older workers. Many of these facts look over the last 30 years.

Employment

  • For workers age 65 and older, employment tripled from 1988 to 2018, while employment among younger workers grew by about a third.
  • Between 1988 and 2018, employment growth for women age 65 and older outpaced that for men.
  • Among people age 75 and older, the number of employed people nearly quadrupled, increasing from 461,000 in 1988 to 1.8 million in 2018.

Participation in the Labor Force

  • The labor force participation rate for older workers has been rising steadily since the late 1990s. Participation rates for younger age groups either declined or flattened over this period.

Chart showing labor force participation rates for people age 55 and older from 1988 to 2018

Editor’s note: Data for this chart are available in the table below.

Employment Projections

  • The total labor force is projected to increase by 6.6 percent from 2016 to 2026, while the number of workers age 65 and older is predicted to rise by 57.6 percent.
  • By 2026, workers age 65 and older are expected to account for 8.6 percent of the total labor force, up from 5.8 percent in 2016.
  • The labor force participation rate of people age 65 and older is projected to increase from 19.3 percent in 2016 to 21.8 percent in 2026. This contrasts with the overall labor force participation rate, which is expected to decrease from 62.8 percent to 61.0 percent.

Work Schedules

  • Over the past 20 years, the number of older workers on full‐time work schedules grew two and a half times faster than the number working part time.
  • Full‐timers now account for a majority among older workers—61 percent in 2018, up from 46 percent in 1998.

Earnings

  • In 1998, median weekly earnings of older full‐time employees were 77 percent of the median for workers age 16 and up. In 2018, older workers earned 7 percent more than the median for all workers.

Education

  • In 1998, 1 in 5 older workers had less than a high school education. By 2018, fewer than 1 in 10 older workers had less than a high school diploma.
  • The percentage of older workers with a college degree grew from 26 percent in 1998 to 42 percent in 2018.

Safety and Health

  • While fatal occupational injuries to all workers declined 17 percent from 1992 to 2017, workers age 65 and older incurred 66 percent more fatal work injuries in 2017 (775) than they did in 1992 (467).
  • Workers age 65 and older had a fatality rate that was nearly three times the rate for all workers in 2017.

Chart showing fatal injury rates by age from 2013 to 2017

Editor’s note: Data for this chart are available in the table below.

Want to know more? These statistical programs contributed data to this blog:

From an American worker’s first job to retirement and everything in between, BLS has a stat for that!

Labor force participation rates by age, 1988–2018 annual averages
Year 55–64 65–69 70–74 75 and older
1988 54.6 20.1 10.9 4.2
1989 55.5 20.8 11.2 4.3
1990 55.9 21.0 11.3 4.3
1991 55.5 20.6 10.9 4.4
1992 56.2 20.6 11.1 4.5
1993 56.4 20.3 10.9 4.3
1994 56.8 21.9 11.8 5.4
1995 57.2 21.8 12.5 4.7
1996 57.9 21.9 12.5 4.7
1997 58.9 22.5 12.6 4.8
1998 59.3 22.5 12.5 4.7
1999 59.3 23.0 13.1 5.1
2000 59.2 24.5 13.5 5.3
2001 60.4 24.7 14.1 5.2
2002 61.9 26.1 14.0 5.1
2003 62.4 27.4 14.6 5.8
2004 62.3 27.7 15.3 6.1
2005 62.9 28.3 16.3 6.4
2006 63.7 29.0 17.0 6.4
2007 63.8 29.7 17.2 6.8
2008 64.5 30.7 17.8 7.3
2009 64.9 31.1 18.4 7.3
2010 64.9 31.5 18.0 7.4
2011 64.3 32.1 18.8 7.5
2012 64.5 32.1 19.5 7.6
2013 64.4 32.2 19.2 7.9
2014 64.1 31.6 18.9 8.0
2015 63.9 32.1 18.6 8.2
2016 64.1 32.2 19.2 8.4
2017 64.5 32.3 19.7 8.3
2018 65.0 33.0 19.5 8.7
Rate of fatal work injuries per 100,000 full-time equivalent workers by age
Year All workers 18 to 19 years 20 to 24 years 25 to 34 years 35 to 44 years 45 to 54 years 55 to 64 years 65 years and over
2013 3.3 2.6 2.2 2.5 2.8 3.4 4.1 9.2
2014 3.4 2.0 2.3 2.4 2.8 3.6 4.3 10.7
2015 3.4 2.1 2.7 2.3 2.7 3.5 4.3 9.4
2016 3.6 1.9 2.4 2.5 3.1 3.5 4.7 9.6
2017 3.5 2.6 2.2 2.5 2.9 3.3 4.6 10.3

Earth Day 2019: Careers that Care for Our Earth

Next year will be the 50th Anniversary of Earth Day! The first Earth Day occurred on April 22, 1970, and I will show my age and admit that I clearly recall marching around my little campus on a blustery spring day in Topeka. Now, 49 years later, we want to celebrate Earth Day by highlighting some jobs that take care of our planet.

One way we keep track of jobs in the United States is through the Occupational Outlook Handbook which provides career information for hundreds of occupations. The Occupational Outlook Handbook was first published in 1949 to serve returning veterans of World War II. This year, the Handbook is 70 years old!

In honor of Earth Day, here are six earth-friendly career paths to consider:

Agricultural Engineers

What they do: Solve agricultural problems concerning power supplies, the efficiency of machinery, the use of structures and facilities, pollution and environmental issues, and the storage and processing of agricultural products.Female scientist in a field examining crops.

  • 2018 median pay: $77,110 per year
  • Typical entry-level education: Bachelor’s degree
  • Number of jobs 2016: 2,700
  • Projected growth. 2016–26: 8% (As fast as average)

 

 

 

Environmental Engineering Technicians

What they do: Test, operate, and, if necessary, modify equipment used to prevent or clean up environmental pollution. They may collect samples for testing, or they may work to mitigate sources of environmental pollution.Scientist standing near waterfalls and wearing protective clothing.

  • 2018 median pay: $50,560 per year
  • Typical entry-level education: Associate’s degree
  • Number of jobs 2016: 17,000
  • Projected growth, 2016–26: 13% (Faster than average)

 

 

 

 

 

 

Biochemists & Biophysicists

What they do: Study the chemical and physical principles of living things and of biological processes, such as cell development, growth, heredity, and disease.Two biochemists talking in a lab

  • 2018 median pay: $93,280 per year
  • Typical entry-level education: Doctoral or professional degree
  • Number of jobs 2016: 31,500
  • Projected growth, 2016–26: 11% (Faster than average)

 

 

Atmospheric Scientists, including Meteorologists

What they do: Study the weather and climate, and examine how those conditions affect human activity and the earth in general.Two meteorologists tracking a storm with satellite images.

  • 2018 median pay: $94,110 per year
  • Typical entry-level education: Bachelor’s degree
  • Number of jobs 2016: 10,400
  • Projected growth, 2016–26: 12% (Faster than average)

 

Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Installers

What they do: Assemble, install, and maintain solar panel systems on rooftops or other structures.Person wearing protective clothing installing solar panels.

  • 2018 median pay: $42,680 per year
  • Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent
  • Number of jobs 2016: 11,300
  • Projected growth, 2016–26: 105% (Fastest of the more than 800 occupations BLS projects)

 

 

Environmental Scientists & Specialists

What they do: Use their knowledge of the natural sciences to protect the environment and human health. They may clean up polluted areas, advise policymakers, or work with industry to reduce waste.Scientists taking notes while conducting research in a nature area

  • 2018 median pay: $71,130 per year
  • Typical entry-level education: Bachelor’s degree
  • Number of jobs 2016: 89,500
  • Projected growth, 2016–26: 11% (Faster than average)

 

 

 

Want more information? You can explore hundreds of occupations using our Occupational Outlook Handbook. For a larger list of new and emerging earth-friendly or “green” jobs, visit the Department of Labor’s O*Net Resource Center.

Celebrating Women in STEM Occupations

International Women’s Day was first celebrated on March 19, 1911. During International Women’s Year in 1975, the United Nations began celebrating International Women’s Day on March 8.

In the United States, the first National Woman’s Day was observed on February 28, 1909. The Socialist Party of America designated this day to honor the 1908 garment workers’ strike in New York, where women protested against poor working conditions. Since President Jimmy Carter’s Presidential Proclamation in 1980, March has included a celebration of National Women’s History.

This blog celebrates women in the labor force, especially those working in STEM (science, technology, engineering, and math) professions.

Check this out: Earlier this year, to commemorate the 150th anniversary of the creation of the Periodic Table of Chemical Elements, we published our own Periodic Table of STEM Occupations!

But first some context

When President Carter issued his proclamation in 1980, 47.7 percent of women were employed, compared with 54.9 percent of women in 2018. For women ages 25 to 54, there has been an even greater increase in employment — from 60.1 percent in 1980 to 72.8 percent in 2018.

Women work in a variety of occupations. The largest number of women work as:

  • Registered nurses (2.8 million)
  • Elementary and middle school teachers (2.7 million)
  • Secretaries and administrative assistants (2.4 million)
  • Cashiers (2.4 million)

The occupations that overwhelmingly comprise women include:

  • Preschool and kindergarten teachers (97.6 percent are women)
  • Dental hygienists (97.1 percent)
  • Speech-language pathologists (96.0 percent)
  • Dental assistants (96.0 percent)

How are women doing in STEM occupations?

Three broad occupational groups have many STEM jobs: life, physical, and social science occupations; computer and mathematical occupations; and architecture and engineering occupations.

  • Nearly half of the people in life, physical, and social science occupations are women.
  • About 1 in 4 people working in computer and mathematical occupations are women.
  • About 1 in 6 people working in architecture and engineering occupations are women.

Here’s a look at women’s shares in more specific STEM occupations.

Women as a percent of total employed in selected STEM occupations, 2018 annual averages

Editor’s note: Data for this chart are available in the table below.

What else can you tell us about STEM jobs?

The Occupational Employment Statistics program provides a wealth of information about employment and wages annually for more than 800 occupations. The occupational employment and wage data below are for 2017. We will release the 2018 data on March 29, 2019.

The Occupational Outlook Handbook can help you find career information on duties, education and training, pay, and job outlook for hundreds of occupations.

Let’s highlight our data for several STEM occupations for all workers:

Computer Systems Analysts

  • National employment is 581,960, and the mean annual wage is $92,740.
  • California has the most computer systems analysts, with 72,980; New Jersey is one of the best paying states, at $105,750.
  • Computer Systems Analysts have a projected 9-percent increase in employment from 2016 to 2026 (as fast as average).

Industrial Engineers

  • National employment is 265,520, and the mean annual wage is $90,340.
  • Michigan has the most industrial engineers, with 28,460; Texas is one of the best paying states, at $108,330.
  • Industrial Engineers have a projected 10-percent increase in employment from 2016 to 2026 (faster than average).

Chemical Technicians

  • National employment is 64,550, and the mean annual wage is $51,010.
  • California and Texas have the most chemical technicians, with 6,450 and 6,350, respectively; Delaware is one of the best paying states, at $63,350.
  •  Chemical Technicians have a projected 4-percent increase in employment from 2016 to 2026 (slower than average).

Some final thoughts

These STEM occupations pay more, and sometimes significantly more, than the mean annual wage for all workers of $50,620. In 2017, the mean wage for STEM jobs was $91,310.

There were nearly 8.9 million STEM jobs in May 2017, representing 6.2 percent of U.S. employment. Employment in STEM occupations is projected to increase by 10.9 percent (faster than average) from 2016 to 2026. This growth is expected to result in 1.0 million new jobs.

Want more information?

Current Population Survey for employment of women: email or phone (202) 691-6378.

Occupational Employment Statistics for occupational employment and wages data at the national, state, and local level: email or phone (202) 691-6569.

Occupational Outlook Handbook for occupational descriptions and projections: email or phone (202) 691-5700.

Women as a percent of total employed in selected STEM occupations, 2018 annual averages
Occupation Percent who are women
Life, physical, and social science 46.7%

Medical scientists

52.1

Biological scientists

47.5

Chemists and materials scientists

37.7

Environmental scientists and geoscientists

33.1

Chemical technicians

25.3
Computer and mathematical 25.6

Statisticians

53.8

Operations research analysts

49.1

Computer systems analysts

37.5

Web developers

32.5

Computer support specialists

28.1

Computer programmers

21.2

Software developers, applications and systems software

19.3
Architecture and engineering 15.9

Architects, except naval

29.7

Industrial engineers, including health and safety

23.0

Engineering technicians, except drafters

18.1

Civil engineers

14.8

Mechanical engineers

10.9

Celebrating the International Year of the Periodic Table

The United Nations (U.N.) proclaims 2019 the International Year of the Periodic Table of Chemical Elements. As Jean-Paul Ngome-Abiaga, coordinator for the celebration of the Year at the U.N., says:

“The periodic table of chemical elements is one of the most important and influential achievements in modern science reflecting the essence not only of chemistry, but also of physics, biology and other disciplines.”

To join in the celebration of the 150th anniversary of the table’s creation by Dmitry Mendeleev, BLS has created our own periodic table! Since we agree with the U.N. coordinator, our table goes beyond chemistry and includes Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) occupations. Don’t worry, our table includes chemists, too. Workers in STEM occupations use science and mathematics to understand how the world works and to solve problems. We thank the Nebraska Department of Labor for the original idea for this table.

The Standard Occupational Classification System Policy Committee has identified several hundred STEM occupations. Here are some interesting BLS facts about STEM occupations:

  • There were nearly 8.9 million STEM jobs in May 2017, representing 6.2 percent of U.S. employment.
  • Employment in STEM occupations grew by 14.5 percent, or 1.1 million jobs, between May 2009 and May 2017, compared with 8.8 percent net growth in non-STEM occupations.
  • Employment in STEM occupations is projected to increase by 10.9 percent from 2016 to 2026, and this growth is expected to result in 1.0 million new jobs.

Our BLS Periodic Table of STEM occupations highlights a couple dozen jobs.

Periodic Table of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics occupations

Want more STEM information?

Check out these STEM products from BLS:

Contact our projections information folks by phone, (202) 691-5700, or email.

Whatever your occupational information needs — whether STEM or non-STEM — we have a stat (or several) for that!