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Topic Archives: Industries

Measuring Business Response to COVID-19 and Other Labor Market Developments

At BLS, we are always looking for new ways to produce timely, accurate, and relevant data. In the spring of 2020, it quickly became clear the COVID-19 pandemic was going to have a major impact on the labor market and working conditions in the United States and globally. New surveys require considerable time and resources, but we wanted to produce new, high-quality data about the impact of the pandemic on businesses and workers. We also knew we needed to produce timely data so they would be relevant and useful for policymakers, the business community, students, researchers, and the public.

In early 2020, our Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages program was piloting a platform that could add questions to the end of an existing BLS survey. In March 2020, staff quickly began creating survey questions to ask businesses about how their operations were changing because of the pandemic. Using this platform allowed BLS to leverage existing infrastructure to quickly create and field a new survey, the Business Response Survey to the Coronavirus Pandemic. It also allowed BLS to produce detailed data by state, industry, and business size.

BLS conducted surveys about the business response to the pandemic in 2020 and 2021. From the 2021 survey, 14.5 percent of establishments increased base wages because of the COVID-19 pandemic. Looking at the industry detail, we find that establishments in accommodation and food services, retail trade, health care and social assistance, and manufacturing increased base wages at a higher rate than the average for the nation overall.

Percent of establishments that increased base wages (straight-time wages or salary) because of the COVID-19 pandemic, by industry

Editor’s note: Data for this chart are available in the table below.

From the 2021 survey, we also found that 34.5 percent of establishments increased telework for some or all their employees during the pandemic. Among the industries, we found that accommodation and food services, natural resources and mining, retail trade, and construction were the least likely to increase telework.

Percent of establishments that increased telework for some or all employees since the start of the COVID-19 pandemic, by industry

Editor’s note: Data for this chart are available in the table below.

Among the establishments that increased telework, 60.2 percent expected to keep the increases permanent after the end of the pandemic. We found that the five states or areas with the highest expectation of continued telework were the District of Columbia (76.7 percent), Illinois (69.3 percent), North Carolina (68.5 percent), Arizona (68.1 percent) and Colorado (68.0 percent).

Percent of establishments with increased telework that expect the increase to continue when the pandemic is over, by state

Editor’s note: Data for this map are available in the table below.

The 2021 survey found that 28 percent of establishments offered some or all employees an incentive to get a COVID-19 vaccination. Incentives could have been financial, paid time off, or permitting employees to remain on the clock to get a COVID-19 vaccination. The five states or areas in which establishments were most likely to offer vaccination incentives were Puerto Rico (49.3 percent), California (39.2 percent), District of Columbia (37.9 percent), Washington (32.8 percent), and Maryland (31.3 percent).

Percent of establishments that offered any employees a financial incentive, paid time off, or permitted employees to remain on the clock to get a COVID-19 vaccination, by state

Editor’s note: Data for this map are available in the table below.

BLS produced additional estimates on telework, workplace flexibilities, changes in pay, COVID-19 workplace requirements, establishment space size, relocation, supplementing workforce, automation, drug and alcohol testing, and COVID-19 loans or grants. These estimates are available in the 2021 tables.

We’ve published new information about vaccine incentives, increasing pay, COVID-19 workplace safety measures, and the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on businesses and employees by industry. Also, we recently published a new article using data on telework during the COVID-19 pandemic.

This year BLS is fielding another survey, asking businesses about telework, hiring, and vacancies. For telework, we are asking businesses about current telework practices, expectations about the future of telework, and telework practices before the COVID-19 pandemic. We also are asking about the ability to telework full time for new hires and vacancies. For hiring, we are asking about actions businesses have taken to attract more applicants and the length of time it takes to hire new employees with certain requirements such as professional licenses or advanced degrees. For vacancies, we are asking about how firms are advertising positions that require different education levels.

Have a question or idea for the Business Response Survey team? Email us at BRS_Inquiry@bls.gov.

Percent of establishments that increased base wages (straight-time wages or salary) because of the COVID-19 pandemic, by industry
IndustryPercent of establishments

Total private sector

14.5%

Accommodation and food services

34.3

Retail trade

20.1

Health care and social assistance

19.4

Manufacturing

17.9

Transportation and warehousing

13.8

Educational services

11.8

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

11.5

Construction

11.4

Other services, except public administration

11.3

Natural resources and mining

10.4

Wholesale trade

9.8

Professional and business services

9.7

Information

8.3

Financial activities

7.1

Utilities

4.7
Percent of establishments that increased telework for some or all employees since the start of the COVID-19 pandemic, by industry
IndustryPercent of establishments

Total private sector

34.5%

Educational services

62.7

Information

60.9

Professional and business services

53.1

Financial activities

52.2

Wholesale trade

43.9

Health care and social assistance

38.9

Utilities

38.7

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

33.4

Manufacturing

30.5

Other services, except public administration

25.3

Transportation and warehousing

23.4

Construction

16.8

Retail trade

14.9

Natural resources and mining

12.2

Accommodation and food services

3.6
Percent of establishments with increased telework that expect the increase to continue when the pandemic is over, by state
StatePercent of establishments

Alabama

Alaska

60.1

Arizona

68.1

Arkansas

51.9

California

67.4

Colorado

68.0

Connecticut

67.0

Delaware

60.8

District of Columbia

76.7

Florida

59.0

Georgia

56.6

Hawaii

65.0

Idaho

59.0

Illinois

69.3

Indiana

60.2

Iowa

53.6

Kansas

63.3

Kentucky

Louisiana

Maine

55.8

Maryland

66.4

Massachusetts

59.7

Michigan

56.4

Minnesota

67.2

Mississippi

Missouri

64.4

Montana

59.2

Nebraska

54.2

Nevada

55.0

New Hampshire

54.3

New Jersey

New Mexico

59.4

New York

52.1

North Carolina

68.5

North Dakota

56.6

Ohio

44.4

Oklahoma

57.3

Oregon

65.2

Pennsylvania

65.2

Rhode Island

64.8

South Carolina

64.7

South Dakota

56.2

Tennessee

56.7

Texas

54.9

Utah

59.4

Vermont

54.4

Virginia

64.7

Washington

63.5

West Virginia

36.4

Wisconsin

51.0

Wyoming

56.4

Puerto Rico

44.4
Percent of establishments that offered any employees a financial incentive, paid time off, or permitted employees to remain on the clock to get a COVID-19 vaccination, by state
StatePercent of establishments

Alabama

23.3

Alaska

22.6

Arizona

28.8

Arkansas

27.0

California

39.2

Colorado

25.7

Connecticut

29.8

Delaware

27.1

District of Columbia

37.9

Florida

25.2

Georgia

24.6

Hawaii

31.0

Idaho

21.0

Illinois

25.9

Indiana

20.0

Iowa

27.1

Kansas

23.2

Kentucky

21.8

Louisiana

23.1

Maine

25.2

Maryland

31.3

Massachusetts

30.4

Michigan

22.8

Minnesota

23.6

Mississippi

23.1

Missouri

25.7

Montana

19.4

Nebraska

22.1

Nevada

31.2

New Hampshire

26.7

New Jersey

27.6

New Mexico

27.0

New York

30.6

North Carolina

28.8

North Dakota

16.0

Ohio

23.2

Oklahoma

23.9

Oregon

26.5

Pennsylvania

27.1

Rhode Island

28.5

South Carolina

26.3

South Dakota

18.1

Tennessee

28.6

Texas

25.7

Utah

21.5

Vermont

27.1

Virginia

30.8

Washington

32.8

West Virginia

23.5

Wisconsin

21.0

Wyoming

20.6

Puerto Rico

49.3

Catching up on Recent BLS Activities

At BLS, we highly value feedback that can help us improve our economic statistics. Three groups regularly advise us on serving the needs of data users: the BLS Data Users Advisory Committee, the BLS Technical Advisory Committee, and the Federal Economic Statistics Advisory Committee.

I cannot overstate the value of these committees. They have given us truly wonderful ideas. If you want to join these meetings, they are open to the public. You can learn more about future meetings directly from the committee links provided above. I welcome and encourage you to attend.

As the Commissioner of BLS, my role at these meetings is to give an overview of all the new and exciting things happening at BLS. I want to share these updates directly with you, too.

Budgets for Fiscal Years 2022 and 2023

Let’s start with the budgets for fiscal years (FY) 2022 and 2023. For full information on the FY 2022 budget, please see the Department of Labor FY 2022 budget page, which has information on the budget for BLS and other agencies within the Department. You also can see the FY 2023 proposed budget, released on March 28, 2022.

In addition to funding our existing programs, the President’s FY 2023 proposed budget requests additional funds for several BLS initiatives.

We are requesting $14.5 million to continue developing a new National Longitudinal Survey of Youth cohort. We are developing plans for a new cohort called the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 2026 (NLSY26). The NLSY26 will build upon our experience and analysis of two ongoing earlier cohorts:

  • NLSY79: A sample of 12,686 people who were born in the years 1957–64. The survey began in 1979, when sample members were ages 14–22. BLS has followed this cohort of late baby boomers for more than 40 years, recording their lives from their teens into their 50s and early 60s.
  • NLSY97: A sample of 8,984 people who were born in the years 1980–84. The survey began in 1997, when sample members were ages 12–17. BLS has followed this cohort for more than 20 years, and sample members are now in their mid-30s to early 40s.

As in previous National Longitudinal Surveys cohorts, BLS plans to ask NLSY26 cohort members a core set of questions on employment, training, education, income, assets, marital status, fertility, health, and occupational and geographic mobility. We also plan to administer cognitive and noncognitive assessments. We are considering other topics as we consult with stakeholders and subject matter experts in a range of fields.

The FY 2023 budget request for BLS also includes the following:

Expanding Our Data

Moving beyond the budget, one topic that’s getting a lot of attention lately is inflation. We’ve been measuring and reporting on inflation at BLS for over a century, and we are always looking for ways to improve our measurement. The National Academy of Sciences, Committee on National Statistics, recently completed a study that focuses on ways to improve the Consumer Price Index. The report provided 37 consensus recommendations on how BLS can adapt to the rapidly changing digital landscape to improve CPI methods. BLS staff are now reviewing the report and developing an action plan based on the committee’s recommendations. You can read my blog about the report and the full report itself.

BLS recently began publishing monthly and quarterly labor force measures for the American Indian and Alaska Native population on February 4, 2022. We have these data back to 2000. Previously, we published data for American Indians and Alaska Natives only annually. You can learn more about the new data in one of my February blog posts.

We now are evaluating whether we can begin publishing monthly and quarterly labor force data for the Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander population and for detailed Asian groups. The populations of Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders and detailed Asian groups are relatively small, so we need to evaluate whether the Current Population Survey sample size is large enough to produce reliable monthly estimates for these groups. We currently publish annual data for Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders and detailed Asian groups in our report on Labor Force Characteristics by Race and Ethnicity.

Updates for Other Programs

I mentioned the National Longitudinal Surveys already, but the program is also doing other great work! In November 2021 we released data for the NLSY97 COVID-19 Supplement. We collected these data from February to May 2021. The survey asked questions about how the pandemic affected employment, health, and childcare. See our brief analysis of some of the COVID-19 data.

We’re also exploring how to measure the value of household production. BLS contracted with a vendor to consider how to use data from the American Time Use Survey on home production and impute the data to consumer units in the Consumer Expenditure Surveys. We expect to receive the recommendations by the end of the fiscal year.

Also in our Consumer Expenditure Surveys, we conducted an online survey test from November 2021 through January 2022 that will help us analyze alternative methods of collecting data. Response rates for most surveys have been declining for years. The COVID-19 pandemic also has made in-person interviewing less feasible. We are currently analyzing the results of the test to learn how we might reverse the trend of declining response rates and be ready for future events that might disrupt data collection.

Finally, we revamped the BLS Productivity program’s web space in April 2022. Information on labor productivity and total factor productivity is now available in a single cohesive and intuitive space. The new web space eliminates redundant material, improves consistency, and includes new material to fill information gaps. It truly enhances the customer experience!

I hope you find these updates useful and that they improve your experience with BLS data. We are always looking for opportunities to improve your experience with our gold standard economic statistics. Be on the lookout for more updates and improvements as we continuously adapt to meet your needs!

Update to the CareerInfo Mobile App Now Available

Occupational Outlook Handbook emblem

BLS has partnered with the U.S. Department of Labor’s Office of the Chief Information Officer to update the CareerInfo app with more content. The updated app is now available from the App Store and Google Play. CareerInfo presents information from the Occupational Outlook Handbook, the most popular BLS resource for career information.

The CareerInfo app helps you find information about employment, pay, job outlook, education and training requirements, and more for hundreds of detailed occupations. You can browse occupational groups and titles or search by occupation or keywords. Within occupational groups, the app allows you to sort by occupation title, projected growth, and typical education or median pay. You also now can browse top lists such as top paying, fastest growing, and most new jobs! Each occupational profile now includes more detailed information on what they do, work environment, how to become one, pay, and job outlook.

CareerInfo mobile app information about 20 fastest-growing occupations
CareerInfo mobile app pay and job data for carpenters

Future updates will add features that will let you personalize the app by filtering searches and by “liking,” saving, viewing, and comparing favorites.

Check out the new CareerInfo app and explore the occupational information from BLS. You’ll be glad you did!

How Timing and World Events Affect Price Statistics

Rising prices have certainly been in the news lately, and we have received a lot of questions about BLS price statistics. Some questions, however, are “evergreen.” Even in times of moderate price changes, BLS staff often hear that the Consumer Price Index (CPI) doesn’t reflect an individual’s experience. We address this concern and a wide range of other issues in our Questions and Answers about the CPI:

Q. Whose buying habits does the CPI reflect?

A. The CPI does not necessarily measure your own experience with price change. It is important to understand that BLS bases the market baskets and pricing procedures for the CPI-U and CPI-W populations on the experience of the relevant average household, not of any specific family or individual. For example, if you spend a larger-than-average share of your budget on medical expenses, and medical care costs are increasing more rapidly than the cost of other items in the CPI market basket, your personal rate of inflation may exceed the increase in the CPI. Conversely, if you heat your home with solar energy, and fuel prices are rising more rapidly than other items, you may experience less inflation than the general population does. A national average reflects millions of individual price experiences; it seldom mirrors a particular consumer’s experience.

Beyond the differences in individual spending habits, price statistics are affected by a variety of factors, including world events and the timing of price data collection. To explore these factors, we will look beyond the CPI to all BLS price indexes. We’ll focus on the price of oil and related items. Let’s start with a reminder of what is included in the BLS family of price indexes and look at how oil-related prices changed in March.

  • The Consumer Price Index measures the average change over time in the prices paid by urban consumers for a market basket of consumer goods and services.
    • The CPI for gasoline (all types) rose 18.3 percent in March and 48.0 percent over the last 12 months.
    • The CPI for energy rose 11.0 percent in March and 32.0 percent over the last 12 months.
  • The Producer Price Index (PPI) measures the average change over time in the selling prices domestic producers receive for their output.
    • The PPI for crude petroleum rose 7.2 percent in March and 62.2 percent over the last 12 months.
    • The PPI for petroleum refineries rose 17.0 percent in March and 62.1 percent over the last 12 months.
    • The PPI for fuels and lubricants retailing rose 22.7 percent in March and 40.0 percent over the last 12 months.
  • The Import and Export Price Indexes show changes in prices of nonmilitary goods and services traded between the United States and the rest of the world.
    • The Import Price Index for crude petroleum rose 15.6 percent in March and 62.0 percent over the last 12 months.
    • The Export Price Index for crude petroleum rose 19.1 percent in March. (This is a new measure, and we haven’t yet tracked it over 12 months.)

National or international events, whether started by Mother Nature or human action, affect the prices businesses and consumers pay for goods and services. We’ve seen this in the past with weather disruptions, such as hurricanes along the Gulf Coast that shut down oil drilling and refining. Current prices may be influenced by the war in Ukraine, the embargo on Russian oil, and other events around the world.

We can see the influence of these events in price changes throughout the production and distribution of oil-related goods and services. BLS estimates the changes in the prices that domestic producers receive through the PPI; this includes petroleum-related industries such as drillers and refiners and the margins on gasoline station sales. Gasoline retailers make money on the margins of their sales—the difference between how much they pay for the fuel they buy from wholesalers and the prices they receive from consumers. Margins for gas stations typically decline when oil prices increase. To learn more, see “As crude oil plunges, retail gasoline margins spike, then retreat.”

Some domestic producers import oil rather than purchase it domestically, and the Import Price Index reflects changes in prices they pay. Some domestic producers also export petroleum-related products, which is captured in Export Price Indexes. Ultimately, consumers purchase gasoline, home heating oil, and other petroleum-based products, and often producers pass price changes on to consumers. Thus, an increase in oil prices can result in higher costs at the pump, more expensive airline fares, and price increases for goods transported by trucks. The CPI reflects these higher prices consumers may face.

The price of oil and related products can change rapidly, adding to the challenges of collecting and publishing timely price statistics. Ideally, BLS would collect prices throughout the month for all goods and services in all price indexes. While that is a long-term goal, it is not simple to implement. Currently, BLS identifies the official “pricing date” for each index, as follows:

  • We collect prices for the CPI throughout the month, with each outlet (such as a gas station) assigned one of three pricing periods, which roughly correspond to the first 10 days, second 10 days, and third 10 days of the month. Once established, prices are updated each month during the same pricing period.
  • We collect prices for most items in the PPI as of the Tuesday of the week containing the thirteenth day of the month. This is the case for the petroleum-related items. (Some items in the PPI have prices collected throughout the month.)
  • We obtain import price data for petroleum from the U.S. Department of Energy. We obtain export price data for petroleum from secondary source market prices. These data represent a weighted average of imported and exported oil throughout the month.

Let’s look at the price of oil over the past few months and how the BLS pricing dates might affect the price indexes.

Daily price per barrel of West Texas Intermediate Crude, January to March 2022

Editor’s note: Data for this chart are available in the table below.

The chart shows the volatility of the oil prices, particularly in March. When the February CPI was released on March 10, West Texas Intermediate Crude Oil prices had already soared from $96 per barrel on the last day of February to over $123 two days before the CPI release. While consumers were feeling the pinch at the pump, this steep rise was not reflected in the February CPI data. Similarly, both the February and March PPI price dates (February 15 and March 15) missed the large run-up in oil prices in the first week of March. The Import Price Index, Export Price Index, and CPI did include the highest prices seen in early March, however.

BLS price indexes represent averages—average selections of goods and services, average weights, and typically average time periods. Over time, these indexes provide an accurate view of price change throughout the economy. But during periods of rapidly changing world events, and corresponding rapid changes in the price of individual commodities (and oil in particular), the index pricing periods may miss unusual highs and lows.

Daily price per barrel of West Texas Intermediate Crude, January to March 2022
DateDollars per barrel

Jan 3

$75.99

Jan 4

77.00

Jan 5

77.83

Jan 6

79.47

Jan 7

79.00

Jan 10

78.11

Jan 11

81.17

Jan 12

82.51

Jan 13

81.97

Jan 14

83.82

Jan 18

85.42

Jan 19

86.84

Jan 20

86.29

Jan 21

85.16

Jan 24

84.48

Jan 25

86.61

Jan 26

88.33

Jan 27

87.61

Jan 28

87.67

Jan 31

89.16

Feb 1

88.22

Feb 2

88.16

Feb 3

90.17

Feb 4

92.27

Feb 7

91.25

Feb 8

89.32

Feb 9

89.57

Feb 10

89.83

Feb 11

93.10

Feb 14

95.52

Feb 15

92.07

Feb 16

93.83

Feb 17

91.78

Feb 18

91.26

Feb 22

92.11

Feb 23

92.14

Feb 24

92.77

Feb 25

91.68

Feb 28

96.13

Mar 1

103.66

Mar 2

110.74

Mar 3

107.69

Mar 4

115.77

Mar 7

119.26

Mar 8

123.64

Mar 9

108.81

Mar 10

105.93

Mar 11

109.31

Mar 14

103.22

Mar 15

96.42

Mar 16

94.85

Mar 17

102.97

Mar 18

104.69

Mar 21

112.14

Mar 22

111.03

Mar 23

114.89

Mar 24

114.20

Mar 25

116.20

Mar 28

107.55

Mar 29

104.25

Mar 30

107.81

Mar 31

100.53

Has the Labor Market Recovered from the COVID-19 Pandemic?

I recently had the pleasure of speaking at the National Association for Business Economics Policy Conference, regarding labor market recovery. Today I’m sharing some highlights from that talk, updated to include the latest BLS data.

There continues to be widespread interest in how well U.S. labor markets are recovering from the massive job losses at the start of the COVID-19 pandemic. Not only does this interest involve counting the number of jobs, but it also includes shifts in labor skills and changes in compensation levels. Some parts of the labor market may emerge from a recession very differently from how they entered. This difference could be in skills required, compensation, changes in the workplace, or a worker’s use of capital. Thus, we always should consider the possibility that recovery in a labor market will differ from what we had before the economic shock. In other words, we should be ready to be surprised.

What does “labor market recovery” mean? According to the National Bureau of Economic Research, the pandemic-related recession lasted just 2 months in the first half of 2020. But we know resumption of work varied considerably over the past 2 years, with some industries maintaining or even expanding employment in the early months of the pandemic, while others continue a slower return to pre-pandemic work levels.

Let’s now step through some ways to understand labor market recovery. Many observers would define recovery as a return to the employment levels before the recession, or, in our case, before the economic collapse and slower economic activity as the pandemic continued. We measure this definition of recovery by the number of jobs below and above the February 2020 levels. Based on our most recent data releases, total nonfarm employment, as measured by the BLS Current Employment Statistics survey, has recovered 93 percent of the jobs lost in March and April 2020. This chart shows the change in employment since February 2020 for major industry groups. It’s easy to see industries with large gains and industries that have not yet recovered their previous employment level.

Change in jobs in each industry in March 2022 above or below the levels of February 2020

Editor’s note: Data for this chart are available in the table below.

However, this straightforward definition of recovery does not account for the growth in the civilian population (16 years and older) over the past 2 years, which constitutes the base of employment and potential employment. The U.S. population age 16 and older grew by around 3.8 million between February 2020 and March 2022. Thus, we could define recovery as total jobs from February 2020 plus additional employment to account for population growth.

Of course, that does not account for one of the principal labor market characteristics of the past 2 years: The number of workers who left the labor force and never returned. Looking at data from the Current Population Survey, we learn that many of those people who are not in the labor force indicate that they want a job but are not looking. That number rose by nearly 5 million at the beginning of the pandemic but has declined significantly since then. In fact, it was still 741,000 higher in March 2022 than in February of 2020. And we still have nearly a million people who say they are not looking for work now because of the pandemic.

People not in labor force who say they want a job now, January 2006 to March 2022

Editor’s note: Data for this chart are available in the table below.

In addition to these straightforward concepts of recovery, our colleagues at the Bureau of Economic Analysis report on our nation’s output of goods and services, called Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Nominal GDP was $4.5 trillion higher in the fourth quarter of 2021 than in the depths of the recession in the second quarter of 2020; after adjusting for inflation, real GDP was $2.5 trillion higher. Both nominal and real GDP were also higher in the fourth quarter of 2021 than in the quarters before the pandemic and recession. The recovery in output implies that the current labor force is enough to support more GDP than we had in the pre-pandemic economy.

Likewise, the BLS index of total private sector labor hours is 99.9 percent recovered from its February 2020 level.

Index of total weekly hours of all employees, private sector, May 2007 to March 2022

Editor’s note: Data for this chart are available in the table below.

Still another way to think about labor market recovery is to measure the return of demand for labor. Labor demand is tricky because it is driven by so many factors in the product and service markets. That said, some recent evidence is instructive. In February 2022, the Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey reported 11.3 million job openings, which is near a historical high. Hires stood at 6.7 million, and separations at 6.1 million. That’s a hires rate of 4.4 percent, little changed from the prior 12 months. In short, demand is high and rising, but hires remain relatively flat and at a normal level.

Job openings, hires, and separations rates, total nonfarm, January 2019 to February 2022

Editor’s note: Data for this chart are available in the table below.

Finally, there’s the issue of labor force participation, the percentage of people age 16 and older who either are working or have looked for work in the past 4 weeks. The latest rate is 62.4 percent in March 2022, up from a low of 60.2 percent in April 2020. However, the rate stood at 63.4 percent in January and February of 2020.

For people ages 25 to 54, the March 2022 labor force participation rate for men was 88.7 percent, compared with 89.3 percent in January 2020. For women, the March 2022 rate was 76.5 percent, down from 76.9 percent in January 2020. Both rates, but particularly the rate for women, were buffeted by the waves of infections and the closing of schools and daycare facilities.

Labor force participation rates of people ages 25 to 54, January 2019 to March 2022

Editor’s note: Data for this chart are available in the table below.

Let me conclude with a few observations. First, we see total work hours returning to their pre-pandemic level and GDP increasing. Labor force participation continues to lag its pre-pandemic rate. The recovery in output suggests the lagging labor force participation may result from demographic and other social factors, and not just economic conditions.

Change in jobs in each industry in March 2022 above or below the levels of February 2020
IndustryEmployment change

Professional and business services

723,000

Transportation and warehousing

607,500

Retail trade

278,300

Financial activities

41,000

Information

26,000

Construction

4,000

Utilities

-10,000

Mining and logging

-86,000

Wholesale trade

-103,900

Manufacturing

-128,000

Other services

-291,000

Education and health services

-456,000

Government

-710,000

Leisure and hospitality

-1,474,000
People not in labor force who say they want a job now
MonthWant a job now

Jan 2006

4,964,000

Feb 2006

4,901,000

Mar 2006

4,918,000

Apr 2006

4,719,000

May 2006

4,635,000

Jun 2006

4,726,000

Jul 2006

4,862,000

Aug 2006

4,951,000

Sep 2006

4,666,000

Oct 2006

4,868,000

Nov 2006

4,818,000

Dec 2006

4,390,000

Jan 2007

4,506,000

Feb 2007

4,706,000

Mar 2007

4,565,000

Apr 2007

4,794,000

May 2007

4,968,000

Jun 2007

4,857,000

Jul 2007

4,737,000

Aug 2007

4,827,000

Sep 2007

4,750,000

Oct 2007

4,352,000

Nov 2007

4,648,000

Dec 2007

4,657,000

Jan 2008

4,846,000

Feb 2008

4,739,000

Mar 2008

4,718,000

Apr 2008

4,733,000

May 2008

4,851,000

Jun 2008

4,929,000

Jul 2008

5,023,000

Aug 2008

4,922,000

Sep 2008

5,153,000

Oct 2008

5,094,000

Nov 2008

5,421,000

Dec 2008

5,431,000

Jan 2009

5,708,000

Feb 2009

5,617,000

Mar 2009

5,807,000

Apr 2009

5,927,000

May 2009

5,986,000

Jun 2009

5,908,000

Jul 2009

6,003,000

Aug 2009

5,649,000

Sep 2009

5,949,000

Oct 2009

6,002,000

Nov 2009

5,998,000

Dec 2009

6,186,000

Jan 2010

5,942,000

Feb 2010

6,098,000

Mar 2010

5,993,000

Apr 2010

5,913,000

May 2010

5,824,000

Jun 2010

5,909,000

Jul 2010

5,895,000

Aug 2010

6,037,000

Sep 2010

6,270,000

Oct 2010

6,289,000

Nov 2010

6,182,000

Dec 2010

6,431,000

Jan 2011

6,472,000

Feb 2011

6,390,000

Mar 2011

6,527,000

Apr 2011

6,537,000

May 2011

6,289,000

Jun 2011

6,519,000

Jul 2011

6,513,000

Aug 2011

6,463,000

Sep 2011

6,262,000

Oct 2011

6,384,000

Nov 2011

6,538,000

Dec 2011

6,323,000

Jan 2012

6,343,000

Feb 2012

6,335,000

Mar 2012

6,302,000

Apr 2012

6,426,000

May 2012

6,309,000

Jun 2012

6,564,000

Jul 2012

6,516,000

Aug 2012

7,011,000

Sep 2012

6,817,000

Oct 2012

6,551,000

Nov 2012

6,833,000

Dec 2012

6,728,000

Jan 2013

6,637,000

Feb 2013

6,772,000

Mar 2013

6,670,000

Apr 2013

6,428,000

May 2013

6,726,000

Jun 2013

6,614,000

Jul 2013

6,526,000

Aug 2013

6,284,000

Sep 2013

6,119,000

Oct 2013

6,024,000

Nov 2013

5,754,000

Dec 2013

6,126,000

Jan 2014

6,360,000

Feb 2014

6,011,000

Mar 2014

6,174,000

Apr 2014

6,207,000

May 2014

6,553,000

Jun 2014

6,207,000

Jul 2014

6,264,000

Aug 2014

6,376,000

Sep 2014

6,326,000

Oct 2014

6,431,000

Nov 2014

6,558,000

Dec 2014

6,406,000

Jan 2015

6,300,000

Feb 2015

6,503,000

Mar 2015

6,355,000

Apr 2015

6,221,000

May 2015

6,051,000

Jun 2015

6,130,000

Jul 2015

6,097,000

Aug 2015

5,890,000

Sep 2015

5,868,000

Oct 2015

5,997,000

Nov 2015

5,649,000

Dec 2015

5,909,000

Jan 2016

6,006,000

Feb 2016

5,927,000

Mar 2016

5,730,000

Apr 2016

5,812,000

May 2016

5,962,000

Jun 2016

5,590,000

Jul 2016

5,906,000

Aug 2016

5,752,000

Sep 2016

6,017,000

Oct 2016

5,948,000

Nov 2016

5,864,000

Dec 2016

5,668,000

Jan 2017

5,758,000

Feb 2017

5,653,000

Mar 2017

5,758,000

Apr 2017

5,708,000

May 2017

5,465,000

Jun 2017

5,277,000

Jul 2017

5,425,000

Aug 2017

5,734,000

Sep 2017

5,637,000

Oct 2017

5,293,000

Nov 2017

5,219,000

Dec 2017

5,275,000

Jan 2018

5,191,000

Feb 2018

5,169,000

Mar 2018

5,044,000

Apr 2018

5,163,000

May 2018

5,188,000

Jun 2018

5,204,000

Jul 2018

5,195,000

Aug 2018

5,413,000

Sep 2018

5,288,000

Oct 2018

5,408,000

Nov 2018

5,398,000

Dec 2018

5,320,000

Jan 2019

5,262,000

Feb 2019

5,216,000

Mar 2019

5,136,000

Apr 2019

5,107,000

May 2019

4,994,000

Jun 2019

5,272,000

Jul 2019

4,999,000

Aug 2019

5,212,000

Sep 2019

4,852,000

Oct 2019

4,778,000

Nov 2019

4,849,000

Dec 2019

4,839,000

Jan 2020

4,937,000

Feb 2020

4,996,000

Mar 2020

5,462,000

Apr 2020

9,921,000

May 2020

8,916,000

Jun 2020

8,182,000

Jul 2020

7,712,000

Aug 2020

7,070,000

Sep 2020

7,194,000

Oct 2020

6,685,000

Nov 2020

7,120,000

Dec 2020

7,277,000

Jan 2021

6,956,000

Feb 2021

6,923,000

Mar 2021

6,822,000

Apr 2021

6,628,000

May 2021

6,583,000

Jun 2021

6,422,000

Jul 2021

6,529,000

Aug 2021

5,701,000

Sep 2021

5,918,000

Oct 2021

5,935,000

Nov 2021

5,819,000

Dec 2021

5,713,000

Jan 2022

5,704,000

Feb 2022

5,355,000

Mar 2022

5,737,000
Index of total weekly hours of all employees, private sector, May 2007 to March 2022
MonthIndex

May 2007

100.0

Jun 2007

100.3

Jul 2007

100.1

Aug 2007

100.0

Sep 2007

100.0

Oct 2007

99.8

Nov 2007

100.1

Dec 2007

100.2

Jan 2008

100.2

Feb 2008

100.1

Mar 2008

100.3

Apr 2008

99.5

May 2008

99.6

Jun 2008

99.5

Jul 2008

99.0

Aug 2008

98.7

Sep 2008

98.1

Oct 2008

97.6

Nov 2008

96.7

Dec 2008

95.6

Jan 2009

95.1

Feb 2009

94.5

Mar 2009

93.3

Apr 2009

92.6

May 2009

92.4

Jun 2009

91.7

Jul 2009

91.8

Aug 2009

91.6

Sep 2009

91.7

Oct 2009

91.2

Nov 2009

91.5

Dec 2009

91.3

Jan 2010

91.9

Feb 2010

91.0

Mar 2010

91.6

Apr 2010

92.1

May 2010

92.2

Jun 2010

92.3

Jul 2010

92.3

Aug 2010

92.7

Sep 2010

93.1

Oct 2010

93.3

Nov 2010

93.1

Dec 2010

93.5

Jan 2011

93.2

Feb 2011

93.7

Mar 2011

93.9

Apr 2011

94.5

May 2011

94.3

Jun 2011

94.5

Jul 2011

94.9

Aug 2011

94.8

Sep 2011

95.3

Oct 2011

95.5

Nov 2011

95.6

Dec 2011

95.8

Jan 2012

96.4

Feb 2012

96.6

Mar 2012

96.6

Apr 2012

96.9

May 2012

96.7

Jun 2012

96.8

Jul 2012

96.9

Aug 2012

97.1

Sep 2012

97.2

Oct 2012

97.4

Nov 2012

97.5

Dec 2012

98.0

Jan 2013

97.9

Feb 2013

98.4

Mar 2013

98.6

Apr 2013

98.4

May 2013

98.9

Jun 2013

99.1

Jul 2013

98.9

Aug 2013

99.4

Sep 2013

99.3

Oct 2013

99.5

Nov 2013

100.0

Dec 2013

99.8

Jan 2014

99.9

Feb 2014

99.8

Mar 2014

100.6

Apr 2014

100.8

May 2014

101.1

Jun 2014

101.3

Jul 2014

101.5

Aug 2014

102.0

Sep 2014

101.9

Oct 2014

102.4

Nov 2014

102.6

Dec 2014

102.9

Jan 2015

102.7

Feb 2015

103.2

Mar 2015

103.0

Apr 2015

103.2

May 2015

103.5

Jun 2015

103.7

Jul 2015

103.9

Aug 2015

104.0

Sep 2015

104.1

Oct 2015

104.7

Nov 2015

104.6

Dec 2015

104.8

Jan 2016

105.2

Feb 2016

104.7

Mar 2016

104.9

Apr 2016

105.1

May 2016

105.1

Jun 2016

105.3

Jul 2016

105.6

Aug 2016

105.4

Sep 2016

105.9

Oct 2016

106.0

Nov 2016

106.2

Dec 2016

106.3

Jan 2017

106.5

Feb 2017

106.3

Mar 2017

106.5

Apr 2017

106.9

May 2017

107.1

Jun 2017

107.3

Jul 2017

107.4

Aug 2017

107.6

Sep 2017

107.4

Oct 2017

107.8

Nov 2017

108.2

Dec 2017

108.4

Jan 2018

108.2

Feb 2018

108.8

Mar 2018

109.0

Apr 2018

109.2

May 2018

109.4

Jun 2018

109.6

Jul 2018

109.6

Aug 2018

109.8

Sep 2018

109.9

Oct 2018

110.0

Nov 2018

109.8

Dec 2018

110.3

Jan 2019

110.5

Feb 2019

110.2

Mar 2019

110.7

Apr 2019

110.6

May 2019

110.6

Jun 2019

110.7

Jul 2019

110.9

Aug 2019

111.0

Sep 2019

111.0

Oct 2019

111.1

Nov 2019

111.0

Dec 2019

111.1

Jan 2020

111.4

Feb 2020

111.9

Mar 2020

109.7

Apr 2020

93.2

May 2020

97.3

Jun 2020

101.0

Jul 2020

102.1

Aug 2020

103.4

Sep 2020

104.6

Oct 2020

105.6

Nov 2020

105.6

Dec 2020

105.2

Jan 2021

106.5

Feb 2021

105.9

Mar 2021

107.4

Apr 2021

107.6

May 2021

107.9

Jun 2021

108.0

Jul 2021

108.6

Aug 2021

108.7

Sep 2021

109.4

Oct 2021

110.0

Nov 2021

110.5

Dec 2021

111.0

Jan 2022

110.8

Feb 2022

111.8

Mar 2022

111.8
Job openings, hires, and separations rates, total nonfarm, January 2019 to February 2022
MonthJob openings rateHires rateSeparations rate

Jan 2019

4.7%3.8%3.7%

Feb 2019

4.53.83.8

Mar 2019

4.63.83.7

Apr 2019

4.64.03.8

May 2019

4.63.83.7

Jun 2019

4.53.83.7

Jul 2019

4.53.93.9

Aug 2019

4.53.93.7

Sep 2019

4.53.93.8

Oct 2019

4.73.83.7

Nov 2019

4.43.93.7

Dec 2019

4.33.93.8

Jan 2020

4.53.93.8

Feb 2020

4.44.03.8

Mar 2020

3.83.510.8

Apr 2020

3.53.18.9

May 2020

3.96.13.6

Jun 2020

4.25.43.8

Jul 2020

4.54.53.7

Aug 2020

4.34.33.4

Sep 2020

4.44.23.6

Oct 2020

4.64.33.7

Nov 2020

4.64.14.0

Dec 2020

4.64.04.0

Jan 2021

4.84.03.6

Feb 2021

5.24.23.8

Mar 2021

5.54.33.8

Apr 2021

6.04.24.0

May 2021

6.24.23.8

Jun 2021

6.34.44.0

Jul 2021

6.94.54.0

Aug 2021

6.74.34.0

Sep 2021

6.84.44.1

Oct 2021

7.04.44.0

Nov 2021

6.84.54.2

Dec 2021

7.14.34.1

Jan 2022

7.04.34.0

Feb 2022

7.04.44.1
Labor force participation rates of people ages 25 to 54, January 2019 to March 2022
MonthTotalMenWomen

Jan 2019

82.5%89.3%75.8%

Feb 2019

82.589.475.8

Mar 2019

82.589.675.5

Apr 2019

82.389.275.5

May 2019

82.288.975.7

Jun 2019

82.288.875.9

Jul 2019

82.188.975.4

Aug 2019

82.689.076.3

Sep 2019

82.789.276.4

Oct 2019

82.889.176.7

Nov 2019

82.889.276.6

Dec 2019

82.989.176.8

Jan 2020

83.189.376.9

Feb 2020

83.089.276.9

Mar 2020

82.589.076.1

Apr 2020

79.986.473.5

May 2020

80.687.274.3

Jun 2020

81.587.875.3

Jul 2020

81.287.575.1

Aug 2020

81.487.974.9

Sep 2020

81.087.774.4

Oct 2020

81.287.874.8

Nov 2020

80.987.374.6

Dec 2020

81.087.474.7

Jan 2021

81.187.674.7

Feb 2021

81.287.674.9

Mar 2021

81.387.675.2

Apr 2021

81.487.975.1

May 2021

81.487.975.0

Jun 2021

81.788.175.4

Jul 2021

81.988.375.6

Aug 2021

81.888.375.4

Sep 2021

81.688.275.3

Oct 2021

81.788.175.4

Nov 2021

81.988.275.7

Dec 2021

81.988.075.9

Jan 2022

82.088.276.0

Feb 2022

82.288.875.8

Mar 2022

82.588.776.5