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Topic Archives: Inflation and Prices

Measuring Consumer Prices for New Vehicles More Accurately

In May 2020, we announced a new research index designed to improve the way we measure consumer price changes for new vehicles. Part of the Consumer Price Index (CPI) program, the research index uses transaction data on vehicle purchases. BLS obtains the data from J.D. Power. After carefully studying the data, we now plan to implement the new data source into the official CPI, effective with the April 2022 release, which we will publish on May 11, 2022. We also will update Measuring Price Change in the CPI: New vehicles factsheet at that time.

The research index departs from the traditional survey methods and data sources we have used in the CPI. The traditional methods sample vehicle dealers and the makes, models, and features of the vehicles they sell. That’s why we took a very deliberate approach before we incorporated the new data into the official CPI. We discuss details of our methods and research in “A New Vehicles Transaction Price Index: Offsetting the Effects of Price Discrimination and Product Cycle Bias with a Year-Over-Year Index.”

Leading up to March 2020, the movements of the research index for new vehicles were similar to the official index for new vehicles. Since March 2020, the indexes began to diverge, with the research index showing faster price increases that the official index did not reflect.

Editor’s note: Data for this chart are available in the table below.

Since the COVID-19 pandemic began in March 2020, the economy experienced significant disruption. This is especially true of the automobile industry, which saw fluctuations in the supply chain, employment, and consumer demand. Combining these shifts in the economy with the changes in methods represented by the research index made it challenging to assess our results.

While the research index and the official new vehicles index maintained similar trends, the recent divergence between them provided an opportunity to assess the robustness of the two approaches.

We weighed several factors in deciding whether to incorporate the J.D Power data on new vehicle prices into the official CPI. The new data include records of the prices paid during hundreds of thousands of transactions each month. That dwarfs the roughly 500 prices collected using traditional CPI methods. The larger dataset allows us to estimate price changes more precisely. As a result, the research index has a much lower standard error than the official new vehicles index.

Editor’s note: Data for this chart are available in the table below.

Because the research data reflect actual transactions, the shift in consumer preference from cars to other types of vehicles, such as trucks, is built into the data. This differs from the official index, which has maintained a roughly equal weight between cars and trucks.

In addition to the quantitative evaluations, BLS continued to ask for feedback on the research index through our website and by consulting with other statistical agencies. We received positive feedback and no major concerns, and we remain confident the research index is statistically sound. For these reasons, we have decided to incorporate the new data source and methods for new vehicles in the official CPI.

In some ways, the past 2 years have been an unprecedented time for statistical measurement, but in other ways business at BLS has continued as usual. When the COVID-19 pandemic began in March 2020, BLS ceased in-person data collection for the CPI and other programs. We collected more data online, by telephone, and through video. While the pandemic affected data collection, we continue to publish data on schedule. We also continue to assess our methods and seek ways to improve the quality of our data. Improving our methods for collecting price data for new vehicles is another step forward in innovating and improving the CPI.

Comparison of research index and official index for new vehicle prices
MonthResearch indexOfficial index

Jan 2018

100.000100.000

Feb 2018

100.02699.871

Mar 2018

99.48199.817

Apr 2018

99.84299.370

May 2018

99.58399.560

Jun 2018

99.49999.705

Jul 2018

99.84199.681

Aug 2018

99.94299.424

Sep 2018

99.91799.129

Oct 2018

99.88699.043

Nov 2018

100.07299.204

Dec 2018

99.47199.409

Jan 2019

99.969100.043

Feb 2019

100.295100.157

Mar 2019

100.182100.539

Apr 2019

100.487100.574

May 2019

100.659100.452

Jun 2019

100.362100.287

Jul 2019

100.484100.027

Aug 2019

100.08999.633

Sep 2019

100.20399.224

Oct 2019

100.44399.136

Nov 2019

99.96599.138

Dec 2019

99.91299.472

Jan 2020

100.486100.175

Feb 2020

100.843100.549

Mar 2020

101.301100.087

Apr 2020

102.431100.008

May 2020

102.842100.154

Jun 2020

103.653100.076

Jul 2020

104.047100.549

Aug 2020

104.142100.284

Sep 2020

103.895100.249

Oct 2020

103.841100.653

Nov 2020

103.977100.726

Dec 2020

103.781101.425

Jan 2021

104.818101.620

Feb 2021

105.652101.714

Mar 2021

106.308101.582

Apr 2021

107.156101.971

May 2021

111.189103.502

Jun 2021

113.656105.341

Jul 2021

114.795106.944

Aug 2021

115.205107.930

Sep 2021

115.942109.013

Oct 2021

118.107110.566

Nov 2021

118.980111.915

Dec 2021

120.336113.373

Jan 2022

121.230114.005

Feb 2022

122.481114.308
Comparison of 12-month standard errors for the research index and official index for new vehicle prices
MonthResearch indexOfficial index

Jan 2019

0.110.61

Feb 2019

0.100.58

Mar 2019

0.110.42

Apr 2019

0.110.43

May 2019

0.130.43

Jun 2019

0.120.46

Jul 2019

0.140.43

Aug 2019

0.130.42

Sep 2019

0.140.42

Oct 2019

0.120.45

Nov 2019

0.160.46

Dec 2019

0.160.40

Jan 2020

0.150.41

Feb 2020

0.150.38

Mar 2020

0.140.33

Apr 2020

0.150.36

May 2020

0.130.40

Jun 2020

0.130.36

Jul 2020

0.150.48

Aug 2020

0.140.47

Sep 2020

0.130.60

Oct 2020

0.130.64

Nov 2020

0.120.65

Dec 2020

0.120.62

Jan 2021

0.130.62

Feb 2021

0.130.66

Mar 2021

0.120.67

Apr 2021

0.110.60

May 2021

0.120.59

Jun 2021

0.130.63

Jul 2021

0.130.61

Aug 2021

0.130.69

Sep 2021

0.130.74

Oct 2021

0.160.72

Nov 2021

0.150.55

Dec 2021

0.150.69

Jan 2022

0.140.67

Feb 2022

0.140.68

How Timing and World Events Affect Price Statistics

Rising prices have certainly been in the news lately, and we have received a lot of questions about BLS price statistics. Some questions, however, are “evergreen.” Even in times of moderate price changes, BLS staff often hear that the Consumer Price Index (CPI) doesn’t reflect an individual’s experience. We address this concern and a wide range of other issues in our Questions and Answers about the CPI:

Q. Whose buying habits does the CPI reflect?

A. The CPI does not necessarily measure your own experience with price change. It is important to understand that BLS bases the market baskets and pricing procedures for the CPI-U and CPI-W populations on the experience of the relevant average household, not of any specific family or individual. For example, if you spend a larger-than-average share of your budget on medical expenses, and medical care costs are increasing more rapidly than the cost of other items in the CPI market basket, your personal rate of inflation may exceed the increase in the CPI. Conversely, if you heat your home with solar energy, and fuel prices are rising more rapidly than other items, you may experience less inflation than the general population does. A national average reflects millions of individual price experiences; it seldom mirrors a particular consumer’s experience.

Beyond the differences in individual spending habits, price statistics are affected by a variety of factors, including world events and the timing of price data collection. To explore these factors, we will look beyond the CPI to all BLS price indexes. We’ll focus on the price of oil and related items. Let’s start with a reminder of what is included in the BLS family of price indexes and look at how oil-related prices changed in March.

  • The Consumer Price Index measures the average change over time in the prices paid by urban consumers for a market basket of consumer goods and services.
    • The CPI for gasoline (all types) rose 18.3 percent in March and 48.0 percent over the last 12 months.
    • The CPI for energy rose 11.0 percent in March and 32.0 percent over the last 12 months.
  • The Producer Price Index (PPI) measures the average change over time in the selling prices domestic producers receive for their output.
    • The PPI for crude petroleum rose 7.2 percent in March and 62.2 percent over the last 12 months.
    • The PPI for petroleum refineries rose 17.0 percent in March and 62.1 percent over the last 12 months.
    • The PPI for fuels and lubricants retailing rose 22.7 percent in March and 40.0 percent over the last 12 months.
  • The Import and Export Price Indexes show changes in prices of nonmilitary goods and services traded between the United States and the rest of the world.
    • The Import Price Index for crude petroleum rose 15.6 percent in March and 62.0 percent over the last 12 months.
    • The Export Price Index for crude petroleum rose 19.1 percent in March. (This is a new measure, and we haven’t yet tracked it over 12 months.)

National or international events, whether started by Mother Nature or human action, affect the prices businesses and consumers pay for goods and services. We’ve seen this in the past with weather disruptions, such as hurricanes along the Gulf Coast that shut down oil drilling and refining. Current prices may be influenced by the war in Ukraine, the embargo on Russian oil, and other events around the world.

We can see the influence of these events in price changes throughout the production and distribution of oil-related goods and services. BLS estimates the changes in the prices that domestic producers receive through the PPI; this includes petroleum-related industries such as drillers and refiners and the margins on gasoline station sales. Gasoline retailers make money on the margins of their sales—the difference between how much they pay for the fuel they buy from wholesalers and the prices they receive from consumers. Margins for gas stations typically decline when oil prices increase. To learn more, see “As crude oil plunges, retail gasoline margins spike, then retreat.”

Some domestic producers import oil rather than purchase it domestically, and the Import Price Index reflects changes in prices they pay. Some domestic producers also export petroleum-related products, which is captured in Export Price Indexes. Ultimately, consumers purchase gasoline, home heating oil, and other petroleum-based products, and often producers pass price changes on to consumers. Thus, an increase in oil prices can result in higher costs at the pump, more expensive airline fares, and price increases for goods transported by trucks. The CPI reflects these higher prices consumers may face.

The price of oil and related products can change rapidly, adding to the challenges of collecting and publishing timely price statistics. Ideally, BLS would collect prices throughout the month for all goods and services in all price indexes. While that is a long-term goal, it is not simple to implement. Currently, BLS identifies the official “pricing date” for each index, as follows:

  • We collect prices for the CPI throughout the month, with each outlet (such as a gas station) assigned one of three pricing periods, which roughly correspond to the first 10 days, second 10 days, and third 10 days of the month. Once established, prices are updated each month during the same pricing period.
  • We collect prices for most items in the PPI as of the Tuesday of the week containing the thirteenth day of the month. This is the case for the petroleum-related items. (Some items in the PPI have prices collected throughout the month.)
  • We obtain import price data for petroleum from the U.S. Department of Energy. We obtain export price data for petroleum from secondary source market prices. These data represent a weighted average of imported and exported oil throughout the month.

Let’s look at the price of oil over the past few months and how the BLS pricing dates might affect the price indexes.

Daily price per barrel of West Texas Intermediate Crude, January to March 2022

Editor’s note: Data for this chart are available in the table below.

The chart shows the volatility of the oil prices, particularly in March. When the February CPI was released on March 10, West Texas Intermediate Crude Oil prices had already soared from $96 per barrel on the last day of February to over $123 two days before the CPI release. While consumers were feeling the pinch at the pump, this steep rise was not reflected in the February CPI data. Similarly, both the February and March PPI price dates (February 15 and March 15) missed the large run-up in oil prices in the first week of March. The Import Price Index, Export Price Index, and CPI did include the highest prices seen in early March, however.

BLS price indexes represent averages—average selections of goods and services, average weights, and typically average time periods. Over time, these indexes provide an accurate view of price change throughout the economy. But during periods of rapidly changing world events, and corresponding rapid changes in the price of individual commodities (and oil in particular), the index pricing periods may miss unusual highs and lows.

Daily price per barrel of West Texas Intermediate Crude, January to March 2022
DateDollars per barrel

Jan 3

$75.99

Jan 4

77.00

Jan 5

77.83

Jan 6

79.47

Jan 7

79.00

Jan 10

78.11

Jan 11

81.17

Jan 12

82.51

Jan 13

81.97

Jan 14

83.82

Jan 18

85.42

Jan 19

86.84

Jan 20

86.29

Jan 21

85.16

Jan 24

84.48

Jan 25

86.61

Jan 26

88.33

Jan 27

87.61

Jan 28

87.67

Jan 31

89.16

Feb 1

88.22

Feb 2

88.16

Feb 3

90.17

Feb 4

92.27

Feb 7

91.25

Feb 8

89.32

Feb 9

89.57

Feb 10

89.83

Feb 11

93.10

Feb 14

95.52

Feb 15

92.07

Feb 16

93.83

Feb 17

91.78

Feb 18

91.26

Feb 22

92.11

Feb 23

92.14

Feb 24

92.77

Feb 25

91.68

Feb 28

96.13

Mar 1

103.66

Mar 2

110.74

Mar 3

107.69

Mar 4

115.77

Mar 7

119.26

Mar 8

123.64

Mar 9

108.81

Mar 10

105.93

Mar 11

109.31

Mar 14

103.22

Mar 15

96.42

Mar 16

94.85

Mar 17

102.97

Mar 18

104.69

Mar 21

112.14

Mar 22

111.03

Mar 23

114.89

Mar 24

114.20

Mar 25

116.20

Mar 28

107.55

Mar 29

104.25

Mar 30

107.81

Mar 31

100.53

What Have You Been Looking for on the BLS Website?

In 2021, the BLS public website welcomed nearly 29 million users, who viewed just over 158 million pages. Wow, that’s a lot of data! It shows the extensive and growing interest in information about our economy. Let’s take a quick look back over the past year. What are the topics of interest? We see clear trends and a few surprises.

From its humble beginnings more than a quarter century ago, www.bls.gov has become the primary way we make the latest BLS data and analysis available to the public.

BLS website homepage, September 1995
First edition of the BLS website, 1995

Today, thousands of users get their first glimpse of the latest economic data through the website or through email alerts and tweets that link to the website. National economic news on employment, inflation, productivity, and other topics is first available on the website, with about 150 national releases each year. Not to be outdone, BLS regional office staff around the country last year posted nearly 1,000 regional and local news releases on the website.

And you came to check out those data—all 29 million of you.

Here’s a look at the five subject homepages that saw the greatest increase in page views from 2020 to 2021. You’ll note that all are timely topics.

  • The Business Response Survey to the Coronavirus Pandemic was a special data collection effort. Information from this survey was first available late in 2020, so the 166-percent increase in page views in 2021 is not surprising, especially given the great interest in all COVID-19 information. Results from a second round of this survey, with updated questions, will be available February 9, 2022.
  • Information from the Consumer Price Index also had more than a 100-percent increase in page views from 2020 to 2021, 106 percent increase to be exact. This is not a surprise, given the significant rise in prices recently.
  • Interest in inflation throughout the supply chain also led to a 60-percent increase in page views for Producer Price Indexes data.
  • BLS has been collecting data on Work Stoppages (strikes and lockouts) for many years, but interest in these data grew in 2021, perhaps because of several high-profile stoppages. There was a 25-percent increase in page views for these data.
  • Rounding out the top five was an 18-percent increase in page views for Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey data. With record numbers of job openings and heightened interest in churn in the labor force, these data have garnered much attention recently. We also began publishing a news release on state data in 2021 to meet the growing need for geographic information on job openings and labor turnover.

Turning to analytical data, some of the most viewed pages were those focusing on fast growing industries, inflation at both the consumer and producer level, and the impact of COVID-19 on many aspects of the economy, such as unemployment and food prices. But viewers were also attracted to some unique topics:

  • The most read Commissioner’s Corner blog was about the 17-year cycle of cicadas, with a look at economic trends during past cicada invasions.
A cicada
A group of friends and family watching a football game on TV

We welcome our 29 million website visitors and encourage you to check back regularly. Your interests drive our commitment to provide timely research on relevant topics. There’s new content every business day, so you never know what new research may be right around the corner in 2022. It will all be at www.bls.gov. See you there!

BLS website homepage in 2022
BLS website homepage in 2022

Answers to Some Recent Questions about BLS Data

I tell anyone who will listen that BLS staff love to talk about our data. We have LIVE people at the end of the phone line (or email request) who are happy to answer questions about BLS data and the methods behind those data. The COVID-19 pandemic has not stopped our ability to respond to public questions. Even in our telework posture, we pride ourselves on outstanding customer service. All BLS statistical programs have staff who answer public information requests. We also have a central information staff out of our national office and eight information offices scattered around the country. Yes, we get questions, and we are more than happy to provide answers.

Recently, we’ve received some general questions about our methods, which cover multiple BLS programs. Here are a few of those questions and our answers.

Why does BLS revise published estimates?

One of the hallmarks of BLS economic indicators is their prompt release. We provide a “first look” at a variety of economic conditions, including employment and unemployment, price change, wages, productivity, and more. To release these data in a timely manner, we follow very strict data collection and processing schedules. Data obtained after the collection deadline are not included in the initial release but can be incorporated later. We identify data subject to these revisions as preliminary. Revisions are a necessary part of the statistical estimation process to ensure accuracy.

The Producer Price Index (PPI) recently expanded the amount of revised data available to the public. PPI data are revised for 4 months following initial release, again to account for information received following the initial deadline, thus providing a clearer picture of price change. Until recently, revised data were only available in the fourth month. For example, July data originally published in August would be revised with the November release in December. The expanded data now available show monthly revisions for each of the 4 months following initial release. So, following the initial release of July data in August, revised data for July are available in September, October, and November, before we release final data in December. This change is in response to requests from data users for these interim values.

Other BLS programs release periodic revisions as updated data become available, providing a clearer view of the economy. For example, the Current Employment Statistics program has more information about the monthly revisions to payroll employment data. Details about the methods behind all BLS programs are available in the BLS Handbook of Methods.

Why is it important to respond to BLS surveys?

We carefully design our survey samples to represent the people and businesses in the United States. Without input from these sample members, BLS indicators would not accurately reflect the economic and social conditions in our country. We strive to make completing our surveys as easy as possible, and we often offer multiple ways to provide information. We design survey questions that are easy to understand and answer in a short period of time.

Nearly all of our surveys are voluntary, which means the people, households, and organizations selected can choose whether to participate. We are grateful that the great majority of them agree to participate. The information benefits all of us.

BLS maintains response rate information on our website and updates this information on a regular basis. This information can be very technical, which is why BLS staff stand ready to answer any questions you might have about response rates.

Check out this video to learn more about the importance of responding to BLS surveys.

What effect did the pandemic have on BLS survey participation?

With some careful planning, a lot of hard work, and a little bit of luck, BLS has been able to release all planned data products on schedule, despite the pandemic. We weathered both internal and external challenges. While many of our tasks had been successfully tested in remote environments, we had to change a few processes. Fortunately, those changed processes were successful, and some even spawned innovations we will continue. Externally, we were mindful that many businesses had limited operations or were closed, and many households were preoccupied with illness, childcare, and other responsibilities. Response rates did decline. Since the start of the pandemic, each BLS program has provided more information about survey response and methods. In some cases, response rates have recovered from their pandemic lows, but many are still below levels before the pandemic.

What steps has BLS introduced to combat weak survey response during the pandemic?

BLS takes many different approaches to data collection and works closely with our partners in the states and other statistical agencies to obtain high quality information from businesses and households. Traditionally, some data collection is done in person, where BLS builds a relationship with survey respondents and shows them the importance of response. BLS also offers many options designed to make ongoing response easy, including use of the internet, email, file transfer, and others. At the start of the pandemic, BLS suspended all in-person data collection. We were fortunate that many businesses, even many of those with limited operations during the pandemic, maintained electronic records they provided to BLS, allowing us to continue producing key economic data.

For our part, the pandemic provided an opportunity to accelerate our ongoing move away from paper and mail. We used phone and email to contact respondents and obtain their data. We also began to experiment with video data collection, a process that proved very successful and is now a vital part of our data collection toolkit. While we started slowly with video collection, and took particular care to ensure confidentiality, we quickly discovered huge benefits. BLS staff can use video communications systems to share their screen, demonstrate BLS confidentiality procedures, show data products, and more. In person, shuffling all these papers can be a little unwieldy. With a little practice and planning, video data collection has proved invaluable.

BLS also has explored ways of capturing information without burdening respondents at all. In some cases, we are able to use web scraping to obtain needed data. We are also exploring supplemental data sources, such as data aggregators and crowd sourcing websites. We have accelerated these explorations during the pandemic. We are learning a lot and obtaining more and more data through these alternative approaches, which can mitigate the effects of declining response rates on data quality. These efforts will ensure that BLS data products remain of high quality with enough detail for stakeholders, while lessening respondent burden.

We will return to some in-person data collection over time and will use those interactions to build ongoing relationships. But we also will continue to advance these innovations, such as video collection and web scraping, as options to make data collection more efficient in the future.

Spend Thanksgiving Day with BLS!

Thanksgiving is right around the corner. As we start to think about how we will celebrate, it might be hard to imagine the ties between BLS statistics and celebrating Thanksgiving. So, here’s a short tour of a typical Thanksgiving Day as seen through a few BLS statistics. Enjoy!

9:00 a.m. Put the turkey in the oven

All good chefs know the key to a successful Thanksgiving feast is to get the turkey in the oven bright and early. Whether you are roasting your turkey or firing up a deep fryer in the driveway, you will have to pay more for the fuel. The Consumer Price Index for household energy was pretty stable through 2019 and the first half of 2020 but then started a steady rise in September 2020.

Consumer Price Index for household energy, 2019–21

Editor’s note: Data for this chart are available in the table below.

10:00 a.m. Watch the Macy’s Thanksgiving Day parade

The COVID-19 pandemic has caused ups and downs in the labor market, much like the impact of a windy day for the famous balloons in Macy’s Thanksgiving Day Parade. Keeping with the department store theme, employment in department stores plunged 25.3 percent in April 2020 but then rose 14.1 percent June 2020. These gyrations were more dramatic than the broader retail trade sector.

Monthly percent change in employment in retail trade and department stores, 2019–21

Editor’s note: Data for this chart are available in the table below.

2:00 p.m. Scope out Black Friday deals

After watching the parade, it’s time to plan our Black Friday shopping! As consumers, we are always trying to get more for less. In the retail trade industry, it turns out they are doing just that. The industry has produced more output with steady or decreasing hours worked. The result is a corresponding increase in labor productivity. Now, only if we could prepare a bigger Thanksgiving feast in less time!

Indexes for labor productivity, hours worked, and output in retail trade, 2007–20

Editor’s note: Data for this chart are available in the table below.

4:00 p.m. Play touch football

We need to make some room of the feast we are about to enjoy, so we assemble willing participants and play some touch football in the yard. The American Time Use Survey is the best source of information on how Americans spend their time each day. In this case, let’s compare how much time people spend playing sports versus how much time they spend watching sports on TV. We’ll look only at time spent in these activities on weekend days and holidays. The survey does not have details on what people watch on TV, but we can assume some time reported here is spent watching sports.

Average hours spent watching TV and playing sports, weekend days and holidays, 2019

Editor’s note: Data for this chart are available in the table below.

We can see that Americans, on average, easily spend more time watching TV—3.36 hours—than playing sports—0.34 hours. But what is more interesting is that, on average, those who watch TV watch about 24 percent more than the overall population. However, those who play sports play, on average, nearly 6 times as many hours as the average for the population.

6:00 p.m. Thanksgiving feast

No matter what is on your dinner table this Thanksgiving, chances are it will cost more than previous years. All six major grocery store food groups in the Consumer Price Index for food at home continued to rise sharply in October 2021. Even if you decide to order out, it will set you back a bit more this year. Both full-service meals and limited services meals rose nearly 1 percent in October 2021.

Consumer Price Indexes for food at home and food away from home, 2018–21

Editor’s note: Data for this chart are available in the table below.

7:00 p.m. Watch football

Now that we’ve finished our delicious feast, it’s a time-honored tradition to watch a bit of football on TV. If you are buying a new TV for this holiday, you can expect to pay a bit more. After years of steady declines, import prices for television and video receivers have reversed trend in 2021, much like a wide receiver changing direction to find an opening and catch a game-winning touchdown pass!

Import price index for television and video receivers, 2011–21

Editor’s note: Data for this chart are available in the table below.

9:00 p.m. Say goodbye

It’s hard to say goodbye to your friends and family. In the United States, however, the Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey is showing that workers are saying goodbye to their employers more often these days. The number of quits has been rising steadily since the shock of the pandemic affected layoffs and discharges in early 2020. (It’s only a coincidence that the layoffs line in the chart below looks like the outline of a pilgrim’s hat.)

Quits, layoffs and discharges, and other job separations, 2019–21

Editor’s note: Data for this chart are available in the table below.

Now we’ve come to the end of our Thanksgiving feast of BLS data. Our hunger for the premier statistics on the U.S. labor force, prices, and productivity, has been satisfied, and we can rest easily knowing there’s a stat for that!

Consumer Price Index for household energy
MonthIndex

Jan 2019

100.000

Feb 2019

99.662

Mar 2019

100.046

Apr 2019

99.952

May 2019

99.679

Jun 2019

99.258

Jul 2019

99.415

Aug 2019

99.253

Sep 2019

99.033

Oct 2019

99.756

Nov 2019

99.890

Dec 2019

99.716

Jan 2020

99.666

Feb 2020

99.355

Mar 2020

98.812

Apr 2020

98.492

May 2020

98.278

Jun 2020

98.501

Jul 2020

98.542

Aug 2020

98.478

Sep 2020

99.590

Oct 2020

100.103

Nov 2020

101.043

Dec 2020

101.377

Jan 2021

101.299

Feb 2021

102.681

Mar 2021

103.436

Apr 2021

104.748

May 2021

105.512

Jun 2021

105.840

Jul 2021

106.664

Aug 2021

107.833

Sep 2021

109.273

Oct 2021

112.872
Monthly percent change in employment in retail trade and department stores
MonthRetail tradeDepartment stores

Jan 2019

-0.1%0.2%

Feb 2019

-0.2-1.4

Mar 2019

-0.1-0.6

Apr 2019

-0.1-0.9

May 2019

-0.1-0.5

Jun 2019

-0.1-0.7

Jul 2019

0.0-0.9

Aug 2019

-0.1-1.4

Sep 2019

0.10.3

Oct 2019

0.20.0

Nov 2019

-0.20.4

Dec 2019

0.3-0.4

Jan 2020

-0.1-2.7

Feb 2020

0.00.3

Mar 2020

-0.8-0.6

Apr 2020

-14.5-25.3

May 2020

3.16.7

Jun 2020

6.314.1

Jul 2020

1.74.3

Aug 2020

1.72.3

Sep 2020

0.2-0.8

Oct 2020

0.70.2

Nov 2020

0.00.7

Dec 2020

0.2-0.6

Jan 2021

0.1-0.3

Feb 2021

0.10.5

Mar 2021

0.30.1

Apr 2021

-0.10.2

May 2021

0.40.9

Jun 2021

0.61.3

Jul 2021

0.00.3

Aug 2021

0.1-0.5

Sep 2021

0.40.5

Oct 2021

0.2-0.2
Indexes for labor productivity, hours worked, and output in retail trade
YearLabor productivityHours workedOutput

2007

100.000100.000100.000

2008

97.76597.65895.475

2009

98.29492.03290.461

2010

100.69492.66793.310

2011

101.39794.68696.008

2012

103.65595.67399.170

2013

108.08095.212102.905

2014

109.91997.268106.916

2015

113.48698.821112.148

2016

118.52598.636116.908

2017

120.71999.896120.593

2018

124.39399.783124.123

2019

130.36098.139127.934

2020

140.39294.650132.880
Average hours spent watching TV and playing sports, weekend days and holidays, 2019
ActivityHours

Watching TV (average of population)

3.36

Watching TV (average of those who watched TV)

4.17

Playing sports (average of population)

0.34

Playing sports (average of those who played sports)

1.94
Consumer Price Indexes for food at home and food away from home
MonthFood at homeFood away from home

Jan 2018

100.000100.000

Feb 2018

99.793100.243

Mar 2018

99.780100.352

Apr 2018

100.026100.594

May 2018

99.779100.929

Jun 2018

99.865101.113

Jul 2018

100.127101.229

Aug 2018

100.198101.421

Sep 2018

100.252101.645

Oct 2018

100.046101.738

Nov 2018

100.259102.029

Dec 2018

100.554102.437

Jan 2019

100.683102.789

Feb 2019

101.014103.153

Mar 2019

101.163103.342

Apr 2019

100.716103.676

May 2019

100.913103.894

Jun 2019

100.718104.232

Jul 2019

100.716104.443

Aug 2019

100.654104.669

Sep 2019

100.902104.940

Oct 2019

101.124105.139

Nov 2019

101.324105.310

Dec 2019

101.331105.611

Jan 2020

101.440106.000

Feb 2020

101.851106.236

Mar 2020

102.220106.395

Apr 2020

104.775106.550

May 2020

105.718106.942

Jun 2020

106.309107.496

Jul 2020

105.343108.002

Aug 2020

105.322108.309

Sep 2020

105.051108.911

Oct 2020

105.177109.210

Nov 2020

105.012109.342

Dec 2020

105.335109.751

Jan 2021

105.203110.122

Feb 2021

105.474110.180

Mar 2021

105.587110.311

Apr 2021

106.047110.649

May 2021

106.423111.258

Jun 2021

107.309112.047

Jul 2021

108.031112.923

Aug 2021

108.431113.405

Sep 2021

109.779114.013

Oct 2021

110.841114.965
Import price index for television and video receivers
MonthIndex

Jan 2011

100.000

Feb 2011

100.173

Mar 2011

100.173

Apr 2011

99.136

May 2011

98.964

Jun 2011

97.409

Jul 2011

97.064

Aug 2011

96.373

Sep 2011

95.855

Oct 2011

94.991

Nov 2011

93.092

Dec 2011

94.128

Jan 2012

94.819

Feb 2012

94.473

Mar 2012

93.955

Apr 2012

92.573

May 2012

92.573

Jun 2012

92.401

Jul 2012

92.401

Aug 2012

92.573

Sep 2012

92.228

Oct 2012

92.573

Nov 2012

90.155

Dec 2012

90.155

Jan 2013

89.810

Feb 2013

89.637

Mar 2013

88.256

Apr 2013

88.083

May 2013

87.910

Jun 2013

87.910

Jul 2013

87.392

Aug 2013

87.219

Sep 2013

85.838

Oct 2013

85.492

Nov 2013

85.492

Dec 2013

85.492

Jan 2014

85.320

Feb 2014

85.320

Mar 2014

85.147

Apr 2014

84.801

May 2014

84.283

Jun 2014

84.111

Jul 2014

83.074

Aug 2014

82.902

Sep 2014

83.074

Oct 2014

81.865

Nov 2014

81.865

Dec 2014

81.347

Jan 2015

79.965

Feb 2015

79.965

Mar 2015

79.965

Apr 2015

79.965

May 2015

79.620

Jun 2015

79.620

Jul 2015

79.620

Aug 2015

79.620

Sep 2015

79.620

Oct 2015

79.447

Nov 2015

79.275

Dec 2015

78.929

Jan 2016

78.756

Feb 2016

77.547

Mar 2016

77.375

Apr 2016

77.029

May 2016

76.857

Jun 2016

77.029

Jul 2016

76.857

Aug 2016

76.684

Sep 2016

76.684

Oct 2016

76.684

Nov 2016

76.684

Dec 2016

76.684

Jan 2017

76.166

Feb 2017

76.166

Mar 2017

75.820

Apr 2017

75.993

May 2017

75.993

Jun 2017

75.993

Jul 2017

75.993

Aug 2017

75.993

Sep 2017

75.820

Oct 2017

75.475

Nov 2017

75.302

Dec 2017

75.130

Jan 2018

75.130

Feb 2018

75.302

Mar 2018

74.784

Apr 2018

74.439

May 2018

74.266

Jun 2018

73.575

Jul 2018

72.884

Aug 2018

72.884

Sep 2018

72.712

Oct 2018

72.539

Nov 2018

72.366

Dec 2018

72.021

Jan 2019

71.330

Feb 2019

70.812

Mar 2019

70.466

Apr 2019

70.466

May 2019

70.294

Jun 2019

69.948

Jul 2019

69.775

Aug 2019

69.603

Sep 2019

69.603

Oct 2019

69.430

Nov 2019

69.085

Dec 2019

68.912

Jan 2020

69.430

Feb 2020

68.048

Mar 2020

67.358

Apr 2020

66.839

May 2020

66.667

Jun 2020

66.667

Jul 2020

66.494

Aug 2020

66.494

Sep 2020

66.321

Oct 2020

66.667

Nov 2020

67.358

Dec 2020

68.048

Jan 2021

68.739

Feb 2021

68.739

Mar 2021

68.566

Apr 2021

69.775

May 2021

70.639

Jun 2021

70.812

Jul 2021

73.402

Aug 2021

73.402

Sep 2021

74.439

Oct 2021

74.784
Quits, layoffs and discharges, and other job separations
MonthQuitsLayoffs and dischargesOther separations

Jan 2019

3,521,0001,689,000301,000

Feb 2019

3,543,0001,769,000353,000

Mar 2019

3,524,0001,721,000331,000

Apr 2019

3,494,0001,954,000313,000

May 2019

3,487,0001,776,000307,000

Jun 2019

3,527,0001,771,000316,000

Jul 2019

3,627,0001,826,000344,000

Aug 2019

3,591,0001,825,000306,000

Sep 2019

3,449,0001,982,000345,000

Oct 2019

3,414,0001,793,000359,000

Nov 2019

3,482,0001,788,000374,000

Dec 2019

3,487,0001,952,000354,000

Jan 2020

3,568,0001,788,000358,000

Feb 2020

3,430,0001,953,000332,000

Mar 2020

2,902,00013,046,000360,000

Apr 2020

2,107,0009,307,000368,000

May 2020

2,206,0002,096,000316,000

Jun 2020

2,646,0002,204,000331,000

Jul 2020

3,182,0001,845,000365,000

Aug 2020

2,987,0001,573,000342,000

Sep 2020

3,307,0001,555,000373,000

Oct 2020

3,352,0001,728,000347,000

Nov 2020

3,296,0002,123,000325,000

Dec 2020

3,407,0001,823,000352,000

Jan 2021

3,306,0001,724,000294,000

Feb 2021

3,383,0001,723,000323,000

Mar 2021

3,568,0001,525,000343,000

Apr 2021

3,992,0001,450,000360,000

May 2021

3,630,0001,353,000347,000

Jun 2021

3,870,0001,354,000389,000

Jul 2021

4,028,0001,423,000341,000

Aug 2021

4,270,0001,385,000378,000

Sep 2021

4,434,0001,375,000410,000