Topic Archives: Time Use

BLS Celebrates Read Across America Day

BLS celebrates the National Education Association’s Read Across America Day on March 2. Not by coincidence, it is also the birthday of the well-known author Dr. Seuss.

In the words of the famous author, “The more that you read, the more things you will know. The more that you learn, the more places you’ll go.”

BLS data show that reading is every bit as important as Dr. Seuss claimed. Only 2.5 percent of workers do not need to read or write on their job, according the Occupational Requirements Survey. However, the American Time Use Survey finds that only about 20 percent of people read for personal interest on an average day.

In honor of Dr. Seuss and Read Across America Day, how about taking some time to learn what else BLS data tell us about reading?

“Fill your house with stacks of books, in all the crannies and all the nooks.” –Dr. Seuss

Consumers spent $15,268,000,000 on reading in 2016, according to the Consumer Expenditure Surveys. On average, households (technically referred to as consumer units) spent $118 on reading. So, of the Whos down in Whoville, which Whos are reading?

  • Households in the West region spent an average of $171 on reading. Those in the Midwest averaged $121, while households in the Northeast and South regions averaged just under $100.
  • Married couples without children spent an average of $174 on reading for their household; those with children spent $123. The households of single parents with children under 18 spent an average of $41.
  • Generationally, when the reference person was a baby boomer (born between 1946 and 1964), the household spent an average of $130 on reading. That compares with an average of $64 spent by households of millennials (those born in 1981 or later).

The Consumer Price Index gives us information about changes in the prices of the goods and services we buy. For example, prices for eggs (white or brown, but not green) increased 11.6 percent in 2017, and prices for ham were up 2.7 percent.

  • Prices for recreational books decreased 3.2 percent in 2017 and were 7.7 percent lower than in 2007.
  • Costs for newspapers and magazines declined 1.1 percent in 2017, but were 37.5 percent higher than a decade ago.
  • Prices for educational books and supplies decreased 1.8 percent in 2017, but were 58.3 percent higher than in 2007.

“I can read in red. I can read in blue. I can read in pickle color too.” –Dr. Seuss

According to the American Time Use Survey, the share of women who spent time reading for personal interest was larger than the share of men. In addition, women were slightly more likely than men to spend time reading to and with children in the household (excluding education- and health-related reading).

  • Seventeen percent of men and 21.8 percent of women spent time reading for personal interest on an average day. On the days they read, men and women spent an average of around an hour and a half participating in this activity.
  • On an average day, 13.4 percent of fathers and 18.5 percent of mothers spent time reading to and with their young children. On days they engaged in this activity, it accounted for about a half an hour of time for both fathers and mothers.

“You’re never too old, too wacky, too wild, to pick up a book and read to a child.” –Dr. Seuss

Do you want to spend more time with Thing 1 and Thing 2? How about a fox in socks or a cat in a hat? Library workers get to do all of that!

Librarians, library technicians and clerical library assistants spend all day with books. Librarians earn the highest wages of the three and also require higher levels of education and work experience, according to the Occupational Employment Statistics and the Occupational Requirements Surveys.

  • Nearly 50 percent of librarian jobs required a bachelor’s degree, and another 42 percent required a master’s degree in 2017. High school diplomas were more common for library techs (42 percent) and clerical library assistants (80 percent).
  • The average annual wage for librarians in 2016 was $59,870. Library technicians averaged $34,780 and clerical library assistants, $27,450.
  • Lifting books is a big job. On a scale from sedentary to very heavy, a medium level of strength was required for about 57 percent of librarian jobs and 71 percent of clerical library assistant jobs.

“There’s no limit to how much you’ll know, depending how far beyond zebra you go.” –Dr. Seuss

So, how will you celebrate Read Across America Day—in a boat, with a goat, in the rain, on a train, in a box, with a fox, in a house, with a mouse? Don’t forget the green eggs and ham! And remember, “You can find magic wherever you look, sit back and relax, all you need is a book.” –Dr. Seuss

What Does the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics Tell Us about Football?

Football season is here. From pee-wee and youth sports, to high school and college rivalries, to professional matchups, it seems like there’s a game available almost every day of the week. You may wonder how football is related to economic statistics. Well, at BLS, we have a stat for that!

A recent Spotlight on Statistics by Bonnie Nichols, a research analyst at the National Endowment for the Arts, examines information from the BLS Consumer Expenditure Survey on what households spent on entertainment, including sporting events.

  • In 2015, American consumers spent an average of $652 for admission to entertainment events, including movies, performing arts, and sporting events. The average spent on sporting events was about $43.
  • Americans ages 35–44 spent an average of $957 per year and those ages 45–54 spent an average of $879 per year.

The Spotlight also provides information from the National Endowment for the Arts on the percentage of adults who attend sporting events—about 30 percent in 2012. Attendance varied by education level. Nearly twice the share of people with a bachelor’s degree or higher (43.4 percent) attended a sporting event as did people with a high school diploma or less education (22.5 percent).

Another source of information about America’s football behavior is the American Time Use Survey, which measures how Americans spend their day. In 2016, about 22 percent of Americans spent some time during the day in sports, exercise, and recreation activities. That could include playing a game of touch football on the back lawn at Thanksgiving or attending a game to cheer on your favorite team.

Percent of the population age 15 and older engaged in sports, exercise, and recreation on an average day, 2016 annual averages

Editor’s note: Data for this chart are available in the table below.

More tidbits. The Consumer Price Index for October 2017 showed prices for admission to sporting events fell 1.7 percent over the year. Maybe it’s a good time to think about attending a game. On the other hand, the CPI also showed the price of beer bought away from home, such as at a stadium, rose 2.0 percent over the year.

I have to go get ready for the Thanksgiving Day games. Hope to see you on the gridiron.

Percent of the population age 15 and older engaged in sports, exercise, and recreation on an average day, 2016 annual averages
Age Percent

Total

21.7

15 to 24 years

28.9

25 to 34 years

21.6

35 to 44 years

20.2

45 to 54 years

19.1

55 to 64 years

22.0

65 years and older

18.8

How do we spend our time? Unpaid Eldercare

Time is a limited resource. We have only 24 hours in a day to do everything we want to do, along with everything we need to do. Caregivers may be especially pressed for time, spending time not only on their own needs, but on the needs of their children or aging family members or friends.

Today I want to focus on care for the elderly. Sixteen percent of the population, amounting to 41.3 million people, provide unpaid eldercare in the United States. About one-quarter of this population provides unpaid eldercare on a given day, spending an average of 2.8 hours providing eldercare. Think about it. That’s almost 3 hours of the day spent caring for someone else—and that doesn’t even count the hours some eldercare providers spend caring for children!

We know this because the American Time Use Survey includes questions about unpaid eldercare. Eldercare commonly refers to the informal or unpaid care that family members or friends provide aging adults, although it can sometimes include formal or paid care. The number of people age 65 and older is expected to rise dramatically over the next two decades. The number of years elderly people live with chronic conditions due to longer life spans is also expected to rise. Because of this, there is wide interest in understanding how much time Americans devote to unpaid eldercare and how it affects caregivers’ lives.

Hours spent providing eldercare by eldercare activity and sex of eldercare provider, on days they provided care, 2015–16

Editor’s note: A text-only version of the graphic is below.

Let’s take a closer look at eldercare providers using the 2015–16 American Time Use Survey data.

Who are they?

  • The majority (56 percent) of eldercare providers are women.
  • People ages 55 to 64 are the most likely to provide eldercare (24 percent), followed by those ages 45 to 54 (21 percent) and those ages 65 and older (19 percent).
  • Sixty-one percent of eldercare providers are employed.
  • Four million people are parents of children under the age of 18 and also provide care for their own parent. These people sometimes are called members of the “sandwich generation,” because they are between two generations that need care.

For whom are they providing care?

  • Thirty-nine percent of eldercare providers care for someone age 85 or older, while 14 percent provide care for someone ages 65 to 69.
  • Most eldercare providers ages 15 to 34 care for a grandparent. Providers ages 35 to 64 are more likely to care for a parent than are caregivers who are younger or older. Providers age 65 and older are more likely to care for a spouse.

How much time are they spending on eldercare?

  • Eldercare providers who care solely for someone with whom they live spend an average of 2.2 hours per day providing care.
  • On weekdays they provide care, employed caregivers spend an average of 1.8 hours doing so.
  • Among caregivers, women are more likely than men to provide eldercare on a given day. On days they provide eldercare, however, men and women spend about the same amount of time providing care.

What types of eldercare activities are they doing?

  • When we think of eldercare, it might be easy to think of just the physical care. However, eldercare may include nearly any activity. Providers care for their family and friends by helping with grooming, preparing meals, providing rides, and more. They also provide companionship or remain available to help when needed.
  • On days they provide care, 37 percent of eldercare providers prepare food, perform housework, or engage in other household tasks.
  • Eldercare providers spend an average of 1.0 hour in caregiving associated with leisure and sports on days they provide care. This includes socializing and communicating.

This is just a snapshot of the eldercare information available from the American Time Use Survey. Find out more about unpaid eldercare in the United States.

Hours spent providing eldercare by eldercare activity and sex of eldercare provider, on days they provided care, 2015–16
Caregiving activity Total Men Women
Total, activities reported as care done for those age 65 and older 2.84 2.77 2.88

Telephone calls, mail, and e-mail

0.03 0.03 0.02

Working and work-related activities

0.05 (1) 0.07

Other activities, not elsewhere classified

0.05 (1) 0.04

Organizational, civic, and religious activities

0.06 0.05 0.06

Purchasing goods and services

0.08 0.07 0.09

Traveling

0.17 0.17 0.17

Eating and drinking

0.19 0.23 0.17

Caring for and helping household members

0.28 0.24 0.31

Caring for and helping nonhousehold members

0.36 0.29 0.40

Household activities

0.54 0.52 0.56

Leisure and sports

1.03 1.10 0.99
 

(1) Estimate is not shown because it does not meet the American Time Use Survey publication standards.

Increasing Commuting Costs?

With Earth Day approaching, we have been wondering about increased costs for commuting to work. At BLS, we don’t have environmental cost statistics, but we do have worker costs.

Some employees don’t have to commute — they are able to work from home.

  • In 2015, the share of employed persons who did some or all of their work from home on days they worked was 24 percent. This is up from 19 percent in 2003.

An image showing someone working at home.

 

But a large number of the workforce still travels to and from a physical workplace, day in and day out. If you do need to trek into work, over the last 10 years, changes in consumer prices for a couple modes of commuting follow.

If you go by car:

First you need a vehicle.

  • New cars: Up 6 percent

Next you need to fuel it.

  • Gasoline: Down 7 percent

But before you can put it on the road…

  • State motor vehicle registration and license fees: Up 27 percent
  • Motor vehicle insurance: Up 56 percent

And you may have to pay for parking once you get to work.

  • Parking and other fees: Up 38 percent

An image showing cars in rush hour traffic in an urban area.

Those in an urban area may have another option to driving:

  • Intracity transportation (bus, rail): Up 35 percent

And one last option:

  • Human-powered commuting (walking to work): No increase!

We hope these data help you make wise decisions on your commuting choices. If nothing else, you may decide to set up a car pool — to help pay for parking!

Why Do We Ask about How People Use Their Time?

Editor’s note: The following has been cross-posted from the U.S. Department of Labor blog. The writer is Rachel Krantz-Kent, an economist at the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

On any given day, about 80 percent of the population age 15 and up watch television, and they watch for an average of 3 hours 29 minutes.* That’s an interesting piece of trivia, you may be thinking, but why does the Bureau of Labor Statistics need to know that? Without context, TV watching may seem like an odd area of focus — but this is just one of many statistics we collect as part of the American Time Use Survey. And Americans across the country use that information every day to get their jobs done.

The statistics above, for example, may be helpful to those promoting healthy behaviors and products, such as those who work in the health and fitness industries. The data can also be useful to television producers in determining programming.

Unlike other BLS surveys that track employment, wages, and prices, the American Time Use Survey tracks a less conventional, but equally important, economic resource that we never have enough of: time. The survey compiles data on how much time Americans spend doing paid work, unpaid household work (such as taking care of children or doing household chores), and all the other activities that compose a typical day.

Some of these measurements have economic and policy-relevant significance. For example, the time people spend doing unpaid household work has implications for measures of national wealth. Information about eldercare providers and the time they spend providing this care informs lawmakers. Measures of physical activity and social contact shed light on the health and well-being of the population. And information about leisure—how much people have and how they spend it—provides valuable insight into the quality of life in the United States.

All of the data are publically available and used by businesses, government agencies, employers, job seekers, and private individuals to examine the different time choices and tradeoffs that people make every day. Here are some other interesting facts the survey reveals about how Americans spend their time.

Unpaid household work: 66 percent of women prepare food on a given day, compared with 40 percent of men.

Why it’s important: These statistics measure one aspect of women’s and men’s contributions to their families and households and help promote the value of all work people do, whether or not they are paid to perform it. Compared with men, women spend a greater share of their time doing unpaid household work, such as food preparation. Statistics like these can shed light on barriers to equal opportunities for women.

A graphic showing how mothers and fathers spend their time on an average day.Editor’s note: A text-only version of the graphic is below.

Where people work: 38 percent of workers in management, business, and financial operations occupations and 35 percent of those employed in professional and related occupations do some or all of their work at home on days they work. Workers employed in other occupations are less likely to work at home.

Why it’s important: Information like this is important for people starting or changing careers. For those interested in this aspect of job flexibility, or for those who want more separation between their work and home, this information can help them identify occupations that are the right fit and decide which careers to pursue.

Childcare: Parents whose youngest child is under age 6 spend 2 hours 8 minutes per day on average providing childcare as their main activity, compared to 1 hour for parents whose youngest child is between the ages of 6 and 12. (These estimates do not include the time parents spend supervising their children while doing other activities.)

Why it’s important: Parenting can be an intense experience for many reasons, including the time it demands of parents. These statistics provide average measures of the time involved in directly caring for children. The data can be helpful to health and community workers whose work supports parents, as well as employers interested in developing ways to promote work-life balance and staff retention.

Eldercare: 61 percent of unpaid eldercare providers are employed.

Why it’s important: Knowing the characteristics of those who provide unpaid care for aging family, friends, and neighbors can help lawmakers create targeted policies and aid community workers in developing supportive programs.

Transportation: Employed people spend an average of 1 hour 6 minutes driving their vehicles, 7 minutes in the passenger seat, and 8 minutes traveling by another mode of transportation on days they work.

Why it’s important: Knowing how workers travel and the amount of time they spend using different modes of transportation can be useful to a variety of people, including city and transportation planners, land and real estate developers, and designers in the automobile industry.

This is just a snapshot of the information available from the American Time Use Survey, all of which is used by researchers, journalists, educators, sociologists, economists, lawmakers, lawyers, and members of the public. View the data listed above and find out more about how time-use data can be used.

* All data are from the 2014 and 2015 American Time Use Surveys.

Working Parents’ Use of Time

Moms vs. Dads on an Average Day

Based on households with married couples who have children under age 18, in which both spouses work full time, 2011–15.

Dads Moms
+55 minutes more working +28 minutes more on housework
+39 minutes more on sports and leisure +28 minutes more caring for children (more if those children are under 6)
+10 minutes more on lawn & garden care +24 minutes more on food prep & cleanup