Topic Archives: Unemployment

Local Unemployment: How’s My State Doing?

The Local Area Unemployment Statistics program publishes monthly and yearly estimates of unemployment and the labor force for about 7,000 areas:

  • States
  • Counties and county equivalents
  • Metropolitan areas
  • Cities with 25,000+ population

If you’re looking for local unemployment data, we’ve got you covered!

State Unemployment Rates

This map shows the 2017 unemployment rates for all states (The lighter the color, the better!)

State unemployment rates in 2017

How do states compare with the 2017 national unemployment rate of 4.4 percent?

  • Hawaii and North Dakota had the lowest unemployment rates, 2.4 percent and 2.6 percent, respectively.
  • Alaska had the highest unemployment rate, 7.2 percent.
  • Seven states recorded the lowest annual unemployment rates since the series began in 1976: Arkansas (3.7 percent), California (4.8 percent), Hawaii (2.4 percent), Maine (3.3 percent), North Dakota (2.6 percent), Oregon (4.1 percent), and Tennessee (3.7 percent).

To learn more, table 1 in the Regional and State Unemployment — 2017 Annual Averages news release provides the unemployment rate for each state.

State Employment–Population Ratios

Another interesting piece of information is the employment–population ratio, which answers the question: “What percent of the population age 16 and older is employed?”

State employment–population ratios in 2017

The national employment–population ratio in 2017 was 60.1 percent. The employment–population ratio continues to climb from its recessionary low of 58.4 percent in 2011. Here are some 2017 state highlights:

  • North Dakota had the highest proportion of employed people, 69.6 percent. The next highest ratios were in Minnesota, 67.8 percent, and Utah, 67.2 percent.
  • West Virginia had the lowest employment–population ratio among the states, 50.5 percent.

To learn more, table 2 in the Regional and State Unemployment — 2017 Annual Averages news release provides the employment–population ratios by state.

County Unemployment Rates

What if you want to do a deep dive to find out about unemployment in the counties in your state? That’s easy to do, too. You can create your state map showing the current unemployment rates for all your counties in less than a minute by following these instructions:

Mapping Unemployment Rates (States and Counties) -> Counties tab -> Select a state from the dropdown -> Select unemployment data and time period -> Hit draw map.

That’s it! Below the map is a chart with the county data listed in alphabetical order. For comparison purposes, you may want to pick up the state unemployment rate from the state tab. Be sure to choose the not seasonally adjusted data, since the county data are not seasonally adjusted.

We have a webpage where you can get annual data for all counties for 2017 and earlier years.

How does BLS get all of this great data?

Unlike many of our other statistical programs, the Local Area Unemployment Statistics program is not a survey. Instead, the program uses survey and administrative data from multiple sources to produce its estimates, including:

We have a short summary of the estimation methods. We also have a longer description (including formulas!) in our Handbook of Methods.

What is the relationship between local information and the national unemployment rate?

We use the same definitions for our local estimates as we do for the national unemployment rate, which we get from the Current Population Survey. Through a feature known as real-time benchmarking, the local data are controlled to the national totals each month to make the data comparable.

Video: Understanding BLS Unemployment Statistics

Why should I care about local data anyway?

We’re glad you asked! As you can see, individual states and areas can have very different economic conditions than the country as a whole. Local labor force measures provide critical information for states and areas that can help local leaders, communities, and businesses make better economic decisions. The local unemployment estimates also are used by 25 federal programs across 9 departments and independent agencies.

  • Most programs use the data to help determine how to spread funds to communities across the country.
  • Some programs use the data to determine funding eligibility.
  • See the Administrative Uses of Local Area Unemployment Statistics for the full list of federal uses of local unemployment data.

Finally, check out the most recent monthly state and metropolitan area news releases to get all the latest numbers. Like maps and graphics? See our series of graphics for the most recent unemployment data for states and metropolitan areas. Head to our Frequently Asked Questions to learn more.

Have more questions? Contact the information folks at (202) 691-6392 or by email. You also can contact the offices on our State Labor Market Information Contact List.

Do You Understand Your Local Economy?

The national unemployment rate may make the headline news every month, but many folks are most interested in understanding their own local economy.

BLS has a stat for that (really MANY statistics for that)! In fact, BLS data were highlighted in a webinar focusing on local data sponsored by the Association for Public Data Users, the American Statistical Association, and the Congressional Management Foundation.

Dr. Martin (Marty) Romitti, a Senior Fellow at the Center for Regional Economic Competitiveness, presented a webinar called “Understanding Your Congressional District’s Economy and Workforce Using Federal Statistical Data.” Though geared to Congressional staff, the information is applicable to anyone interested in knowing more about their local economy.

By using an extended example of the Napa, California, metropolitan area (where we immediately think, “Wine Country!”), Dr. Romitti finds some interesting information that may shatter some of your preconceived notions of that region.

He does this by answering 10 questions — 5 about “our people,” where he uses U.S. Census Bureau data and 5 about “our economy,” where he uses BLS data.

We are going to focus on the BLS portion (run time 31:12)* of the webinar. The five questions Dr. Romitti poses about our economy are:

  1. How healthy is my economy now?
  2. How many unemployed people live in my area?
  3. What are the largest employing industries?
  4. Which industries pay most to workers?
  5. What are our economic strengths?

Below are some steps and tips if you want to access the same information as Dr. Romitti on www.bls.gov. Note that he uses Internet Explorer; use a different browser and your screen will look different.

Dr. Romitti uses two BLS tools; we have included the path and links to pages as appropriate:

  • To answer Questions 1 and 2: Economy at a Glance -> California -> Napa (Dr. Romitti suggests clicking on the maps.)
    • Tips:
    • For context, suggest you compare your area data to your state numbers. Beware: Your state unemployment rate is seasonally adjusted, while your area data are not.
    • Also, for context, you may want to look at the data over time, such as the last 10 years. Just remember the “Great Recession” occurred starting in late 2007.
  • To answer Questions 3, 4, and 5: BLS Data Tools -> Employment -> Quarterly -> State and County Employment and Wages -> Tables

By following these instructions, you can uncover the same information as Dr. Romitti. We believe Dr. Romitti does a good job of explaining how to answer questions related to local economic data in under an hour!

But wait, there’s more! Let me offer two more resources in your quest for local data:

  1. Are you familiar with our Economic Summaries? These summaries present a sampling of economic information for the area covered, such as unemployment, employment, wages, prices, spending, and benefits. For example, take a look at San Francisco. If you are looking for something quick and easy, you might find what you need in one of these summaries.
  2. The Economic Summaries are produced by the BLS regional information offices. The BLS regional office staff stand ready to assist you with questions about your local economy.

*The taped webinar starts with a musical interlude and some brief introductions. The real action starts at the following run-time intervals:

Run Time                    Presentation Topic   

6:46                             Introduction by Dr. Romitti

11:30                           About our people (Census Bureau data)

31:12                           About our economy (BLS data) begins

52:36                           Regional Economic Accounts (Bureau of Economic Analysis data)

58:53                           Conclusion

60:00                           End

Recalibrating the Jobs Thermometer

The U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics is responsible for measuring labor market activity. Each month BLS releases some of the most up-to-date measures of economic health in The Employment Situation, often called “the jobs report.” We also release the Commissioner’s statement each month at the same time as the jobs report.

Most of the attention focuses on the headline numbers—how many jobs were added (or lost) that month and did the unemployment rate change? However, with the release of January data each February, we make some yearly updates to improve the accuracy of the numbers. In our survey of households, which is the source for the unemployment rate and other measures, we update the U.S. population totals to reflect the latest information about births, deaths, and international migration. In our survey of nonfarm establishments, which is the source of the jobs count, we make our annual benchmark revisions. Today I’m going to focus on the establishment data.

Each month, the establishment program surveys a sample of businesses and governments around the country. The survey asks how many people worked or received pay for the pay period that included the 12th of the month. While the establishment sample is large, covering about one-third of all nonfarm jobs, the employment changes reported each month are still subject to revisions. Monthly revisions result from more establishments reporting their numbers or correcting previous reports, and from updated information about seasonal employment patterns.

The establishment survey also benefits from another source of data, the Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages. That is a nearly complete count of all establishments, although it is available with a delay of about 6 months. A full count of employment helps us in several ways. We use the data to measure the error associated with the establishment survey. This way data users don’t have to guess how accurate the monthly employment data are. We have a stat for that! In case you are wondering, the data are very accurate. Annual benchmark revisions (which I will explain in a moment) have averaged only 0.3 percent in absolute terms over the past 10 years.

Besides measuring error, once a year we realign the sample-based estimates with the full count of employment. We call this “benchmarking.” This realignment makes sure the employment levels do not stray too far from the “truth” over time. (For several reasons that I won’t go into right now, the establishment survey employment totals will not exactly equal employment totals from the full counts. If you really want to know the details, you can read more about benchmarking, but remember I tried to spare you.)

During this annual benchmarking, we also introduce other changes to the survey. Sometimes we update the industry classification, like we will this year. We also use new information to update the statistical model that accounts for business births and deaths. We review the establishment sample for size, coverage, and response rates, and we may drop some series if the data quality doesn’t meet our standards. We also update the models and information used in seasonal adjustment.

As you can see, there’s a lot going on during this annual updating. All establishment data, including employment, hours, and earnings, are subject to adjustment. I hope this brief explanation and the material we have on our website help to make everything more transparent and easier to understand.

The same basic benchmarking that occurs nationally also happens for the state and local employment estimates. Want to know more? Visit their homepage. If you still have questions, call or email us. We are here to help.

Data Privacy Day is Every Day at BLS

There are many commemorative days, weeks, and months, but Data Privacy Day on January 28 is one that we here at BLS live every day of the year.

If this is the first time you’re hearing about it, Data Privacy Day is an international effort to “create awareness about the importance of:

  • respecting privacy,
  • safeguarding data and
  • enabling trust.”

These three phrases are central to everything we do at BLS—but don’t take my word for it! Instead, let’s hear from some of our staff members about what data privacy means in their day-to-day work lives.

I chatted with staff members from three key areas at the Bureau:

  • Collection — our field economists collect data from respondents.
  • Systems — our computer specialists protect the IT infrastructure where we keep the data.
  • Analysis — our economists analyze the data, prepare products, and explain the data to our customers.

Now, let’s meet the staff.

Richard Regotti

Richard Regotti

My name is Richard Regotti, Field Economist in the BLS Chicago Regional Office, Cleveland Area Office. I have proudly served the public in this position for 12 years. As a Field Economist I am responsible for collecting data and developing positive relationships and securing cooperation from survey respondents for the Producer Price Index and the International Price Indexes.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Jess Mitchell

Jess Mitchell

My name is Jess Mitchell and I have been an Information Security Specialist in the Bureau’s national office since 2013. I started with BLS in 1999. Currently, I am the Computer Security Incident Response Team Lead, so I, along with my team members, investigate, analyze and report on computer security incidents as well as the impact or potential impact of cyber threats and vulnerabilities to BLS systems and data.

 

 

 

 

 

Karen Kosanovich

Karen Kosanovich

My name is Karen Kosanovich, Economist, and I have spent the past 19 years working with unemployment data from the Current Population Survey, and 25 years total at BLS. I develop analyses, such as The Employment Situation, and talk to our customers about the data.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Question 1. One of our core BLS values is the confidentiality of data: All respondent data are completely confidential and used for statistical purposes only. How does this impact you in your daily work?

Richard: On a daily basis I am asking producers and service providers to voluntarily provide very sensitive company information. Even after identifying myself as a representative of our Federal Government, some respondents are not comfortable with agreeing to provide us their confidential information for use in our statistical output. By focusing on the mission of the BLS and the legal protections that are in place to safeguard survey data, I am able to function on the front line as a data collector.

Jess: This core value of data confidentiality helps me to focus on the importance of protecting the confidentiality of BLS data when my team members and I are investigating threats. The importance of BLS data underscores the importance of our daily work to keep BLS data and data respondent information confidential.

Karen: I don’t have access to information about specific people who respond to our survey. All personally identifying information is stripped away before the statistical information is given to an economist like me to analyze. For my colleagues and me, confidentiality means protecting our estimates from being distributed in advance of the official release of the unemployment rate at 8:30 a.m. on the day we publish our data.

Question 2. Does adherence to this core value create any challenges for you in your work? How have you overcome those challenges?

Richard: Adherence to complete confidentiality, supported by the fact that the data are used for statistical purposes only, presents no challenge to me; this core value is a selling point and something I make sure all potential survey participants are aware of prior to providing any data to the BLS.

Jess: Adherence to the core BLS value of data confidentiality does create a challenge when we need to engage our office in an incident or threat investigation; we must be very diligent not to share Confidential Information Protection and Statistical Efficiency Act (CIPSEA) information.

Karen: Our procedures for working with embargoed (prerelease) information are so ingrained in my work routine that I don’t notice any challenges from them. The people I work with all have the same responsibility and a strong commitment to public service, so it is easy for us to keep vigilant.

Question 3. If you could make a statement to the American people about why they should trust BLS with their information, what would that be?

Richard: BLS is not a compliance or regulatory agency in any way. We are only concerned with providing accurate, timely, relevant, and unbiased data that reports on the health and well-being of our economy. Your information contributes to the validity of BLS data.

Jess: The confidentiality of BLS data is always at the root of my office’s work, and I see the same focus on data privacy and confidentiality and diligence toward the safeguarding of CIPSEA data throughout the entire culture of BLS.

Karen: Although I don’t have names and personal details of specific unemployed people who respond to our survey, my colleagues and I are very mindful of the importance of representing the experience of all Americans when we produce our estimates. The data we publish are not just numbers, but tell the story of real people. It can be very stressful to be unemployed, and those who have been looking for work for a very long time face significant challenges in the labor market. We take our jobs, and our mission, very seriously.

And now the rules:

Of course, we don’t work in a vacuum. Like any other organization, we have rules that we live under.

BLS makes a pledge of confidentiality to its respondents that data collected are used for statistical purposes only. The pledge is covered by CIPSEA, which makes it a felony to disclose or release the information for either nonstatistical purposes (for example, regulatory or law-enforcement purposes) or to unauthorized persons. In addition, the Office of Management and Budget has Statistical Policy Directives (3 and 4) that govern BLS news releases to ensure they meet specific accuracy, timeliness, and accountability standards.

On January 28, and every day, we hope you will take steps to protect your own privacy and the privacy of others. Here at BLS we will continue to educate and raise awareness about respecting privacy and safeguarding data. It is core to our mission and central to our staff values. Without the trust these actions produce among the American people, we could not do our work in providing gold-standard data for and about America’s workers.

Thank you for your trust and happy Data Privacy Day!

Labor Market Status of U.S. Military Veterans in 2017

In honor of Veterans Day, here’s a one-stop shop of all of our most up-to-date data on veterans.

  • After reaching 9.9 percent in January 2011, the unemployment rate for veterans was 2.7 percent in October 2017. This is the lowest rate since 2000.
  • The unemployment rate for Gulf War-era II veterans — who served on active duty at any time since September 2001 — reached 15.2 percent in January 2011. However, the unemployment rate was 3.6 percent in October 2017, the lowest rate since this series began in 2006.
  • The peak unemployment rate for nonveterans was 10.4 percent in January 2010; their rate was 3.8 percent in October 2017.
  • There were 347,000 unemployed veterans in the United States in the third quarter of 2017; 30 percent of them were ages 18 to 34.
  • In the third quarter of 2017, more veterans worked in government than in any other industry; 21 percent of all veterans and 25 percent of Gulf War-era II veterans worked for federal, state, or local government. By comparison, 13 percent of employed nonveterans worked in government.
  • After government, the next largest employers of veterans are manufacturing and professional and business services.

Now let’s take a look at some data that may help veterans who are looking for work or considering a career change.

Looking to move?

In 2016, the unemployment rate for veterans varied across the country, ranging from 1.8 percent in Indiana to 7.6 percent in the District of Columbia.

A map showing unemployment rates for U.S. military veterans by state in 2016

Editor’s note: Data for this map are available in the table below.

What industries have the most job openings?

There were 6.1 million job openings in September 2017. Here’s how they break down by industry.

A chart showing job openings by industry in September 2017.

Editor’s note: Data for this chart are available in the table below.

What are the fastest-growing jobs?

Thank you, veterans, for your service. Check out our website at www.bls.gov 24/7 or give our information office a call at 202-691-5200. We also have regional information offices available to assist you. BLS has the data you need to make wise decisions.

Unemployment rates for veterans by state, 2016 annual averages
State Unemployment rate
Total, 18 years and over 4.3%

Alabama

4.9

Alaska

2.7

Arizona

3.9

Arkansas

3.1

California

5.4

Colorado

3.9

Connecticut

4.4

Delaware

4.1

District of Columbia

7.6

Florida

4.2

Georgia

3.5

Hawaii

2.2

Idaho

3.6

Illinois

6.7

Indiana

1.8

Iowa

4.2

Kansas

5.2

Kentucky

3.9

Louisiana

5.0

Maine

3.1

Maryland

3.8

Massachusetts

4.6

Michigan

3.2

Minnesota

5.8

Mississippi

4.6

Missouri

3.2

Montana

4.4

Nebraska

4.1

Nevada

4.0

New Hampshire

2.1

New Jersey

4.9

New Mexico

3.6

New York

5.6

North Carolina

4.5

North Dakota

3.9

Ohio

4.2

Oklahoma

4.5

Oregon

6.3

Pennsylvania

5.2

Rhode Island

3.7

South Carolina

5.0

South Dakota

2.6

Tennessee

3.6

Texas

3.6

Utah

2.3

Vermont

2.2

Virginia

3.4

Washington

3.8

West Virginia

4.8

Wisconsin

5.0

Wyoming

5.1
Note: Veterans are men and women who served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces and were not on active duty at the time of the survey.
Job openings by industry in September 2017
Industry Number
Professional and business services 1,193,000
Health care and social assistance 1,074,000
Accommodation and food services 667,000
Retail trade 616,000
Manufacturing 425,000
Finance and insurance 280,000
Other services 280,000
State and local government, excluding education 267,000
Transportation, warehousing, and utilities 246,000
Wholesale trade 222,000
Construction 196,000
State and local government education 182,000
Educational services 98,000
Information 94,000
Arts, entertainment, and recreation 90,000
Federal government 81,000
Real estate and rental and leasing 59,000
Mining and logging 24,000