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Topic Archives: Union Membership

Celebrating African American History Month

In honor of African American History Month, we’d like to highlight some employment statistics about Black or African American men and women.

Historically, the employment–population ratio for Black men has been considerably lower than the rate for men overall. For example, 60.0 percent of Black men were employed in January 2022, 5.1 percentage points lower than the employment–population ratio for men overall. By contrast, the employment–population ratios for Black women and for women overall have historically been much closer. In January 2022, the ratio for Black women was 55.7 percent, 1.1 percentage points higher than the ratio for women overall.

At the start of the COVID-19 pandemic, the employment–population ratio for Black men fell by 10.2 percentage points between February 2020 and April 2020 to 50.4 percent. This was the lowest in the history of the data, going back to 1972. Over the same period, the ratio for men overall fell by a slightly smaller amount—9.6 percentage points—to 57.2 percent. However, between April 2020 and January 2022, the ratio for Black men has risen by 9.6 percentage points, while the ratio for men overall has risen by a smaller amount, 7.9 percentage points.

Between February 2020 and April 2020, the employment–population ratio for Black women fell by 11.0 percentage points, a greater decline than the 10.1 percentage points for women overall. Since April 2020, the measure for Black women has risen less than that for women overall (8.3 percentage points versus 8.8 percentage points).

Employment–population ratios of Blacks or African Americans and the total population by sex, January 1972–January 2022, seasonally adjusted

Editor’s note: Data for this chart are available in the table below.

The disparity in the recovery of the employment–population ratio between men and women may partially reflect the industries in which they are employed.

In 2021, 14.9 percent of employed Black men worked in transportation and utilities, a larger share than for men overall (8.7 percent). Within transportation and utilities, Black men were particularly likely to work in couriers and messengers and in warehousing and storage; these industries have fully recovered the jobs they lost between February 2020 and April 2020 and have continued to add jobs.

Percent distribution of employed Blacks or African Americans and the total workforce by selected  industry and sex, 2021 annual averages

Editor’s note: Data for this chart are available in the table below.

In 2021, 40.1 percent of employed Black women worked in education and health services, a larger share than for women overall (36.0 percent). Employment in the education and health services industry is still 2.6 percent below its February 2020 level. Within this broad industry, Black women were especially likely to work in nursing and residential care facilities, where employment is 12.1 percent below its level before the pandemic.

We have more information about the labor force characteristics of Black men and women on our labor force demographics page.

This is just a sample of the information available on the labor force status of African Americans. Explore for yourself some of our other resources to expand your knowledge.

Employment–population ratios of Blacks or African Americans and the total population by sex, January 1972–January 2022, seasonally adjusted
MonthTotal menTotal womenBlack menBlack women

Jan 1972

74.6%40.8%65.1%43.1%

Feb 1972

74.640.865.742.9

Mar 1972

74.941.066.742.9

Apr 1972

74.940.967.143.0

May 1972

74.941.067.043.2

Jun 1972

75.140.968.542.9

Jul 1972

75.140.966.842.6

Aug 1972

75.341.067.242.4

Sep 1972

75.140.966.842.7

Oct 1972

75.040.966.642.3

Nov 1972

75.141.166.843.7

Dec 1972

75.441.367.243.9

Jan 1973

75.141.066.743.1

Feb 1973

75.441.667.843.8

Mar 1973

75.741.768.043.8

Apr 1973

75.541.967.543.5

May 1973

75.342.167.043.3

Jun 1973

75.642.367.143.1

Jul 1973

75.742.167.444.5

Aug 1973

75.442.167.444.4

Sep 1973

75.442.267.243.9

Oct 1973

75.742.468.044.4

Nov 1973

75.842.667.944.2

Dec 1973

75.842.568.344.0

Jan 1974

76.042.368.644.0

Feb 1974

75.842.667.643.9

Mar 1974

75.542.767.042.9

Apr 1974

75.142.766.643.7

May 1974

75.342.666.643.9

Jun 1974

75.042.765.743.8

Jul 1974

74.843.065.643.6

Aug 1974

74.742.865.243.9

Sep 1974

74.642.764.844.3

Oct 1974

74.442.665.343.5

Nov 1974

74.142.364.142.3

Dec 1974

73.442.163.042.0

Jan 1975

72.642.062.141.8

Feb 1975

72.241.761.441.4

Mar 1975

71.941.760.641.6

Apr 1975

71.641.859.741.4

May 1975

71.741.960.441.5

Jun 1975

71.341.960.142.0

Jul 1975

71.742.160.841.7

Aug 1975

71.842.260.741.4

Sep 1975

71.642.260.741.4

Oct 1975

71.542.360.241.6

Nov 1975

71.442.260.141.8

Dec 1975

71.442.459.742.1

Jan 1976

71.842.760.242.6

Feb 1976

71.942.860.142.6

Mar 1976

71.943.060.043.8

Apr 1976

72.243.160.943.4

May 1976

72.243.460.943.1

Jun 1976

71.843.359.942.8

Jul 1976

72.143.560.542.4

Aug 1976

72.343.361.142.5

Sep 1976

72.143.260.842.3

Oct 1976

72.143.260.642.2

Nov 1976

72.043.660.943.3

Dec 1976

72.043.661.242.7

Jan 1977

72.143.661.542.5

Feb 1977

72.243.861.842.5

Mar 1977

72.344.061.742.8

Apr 1977

72.644.262.343.1

May 1977

72.644.660.943.7

Jun 1977

72.844.462.043.3

Jul 1977

72.844.461.142.9

Aug 1977

72.944.660.843.5

Sep 1977

72.844.860.343.8

Oct 1977

73.244.860.643.5

Nov 1977

73.545.161.643.3

Dec 1977

73.645.362.645.0

Jan 1978

73.545.562.544.8

Feb 1978

73.445.762.845.4

Mar 1978

73.345.863.345.4

Apr 1978

73.646.263.245.6

May 1978

73.846.363.345.7

Jun 1978

74.146.563.546.1

Jul 1978

73.846.363.745.3

Aug 1978

73.946.462.646.6

Sep 1978

73.746.763.646.7

Oct 1978

73.847.063.846.5

Nov 1978

74.147.063.546.0

Dec 1978

73.947.163.546.0

Jan 1979

74.247.163.245.8

Feb 1979

74.347.363.145.8

Mar 1979

74.047.563.246.6

Apr 1979

73.947.162.945.9

May 1979

73.847.263.445.4

Jun 1979

74.047.263.845.8

Jul 1979

73.947.563.946.3

Aug 1979

73.747.364.245.3

Sep 1979

73.947.664.445.9

Oct 1979

73.547.763.746.4

Nov 1979

73.447.962.946.5

Dec 1979

73.548.062.646.6

Jan 1980

73.348.061.946.4

Feb 1980

73.447.961.646.3

Mar 1980

73.047.861.345.8

Apr 1980

72.347.760.945.6

May 1980

71.947.660.345.7

Jun 1980

71.547.559.845.4

Jul 1980

71.447.559.945.7

Aug 1980

71.447.559.746.0

Sep 1980

71.447.659.545.7

Oct 1980

71.647.660.045.4

Nov 1980

71.647.760.145.3

Dec 1980

71.747.659.945.2

Jan 1981

71.747.860.345.7

Feb 1981

71.648.059.845.2

Mar 1981

71.848.160.245.2

Apr 1981

72.148.360.346.3

May 1981

71.948.460.545.2

Jun 1981

71.148.158.445.1

Jul 1981

71.548.158.745.0

Aug 1981

71.448.158.244.3

Sep 1981

71.147.558.944.6

Oct 1981

70.847.958.445.0

Nov 1981

70.547.957.545.6

Dec 1981

70.047.657.544.9

Jan 1982

69.947.757.145.2

Feb 1982

69.947.757.244.5

Mar 1982

69.647.756.844.2

Apr 1982

69.547.656.643.7

May 1982

69.747.856.444.0

Jun 1982

68.947.855.544.2

Jul 1982

68.847.856.144.0

Aug 1982

68.847.856.044.3

Sep 1982

68.647.855.144.4

Oct 1982

68.447.555.044.0

Nov 1982

68.247.555.543.8

Dec 1982

68.047.554.644.1

Jan 1983

67.947.555.043.8

Feb 1983

67.847.555.344.5

Mar 1983

67.847.555.444.0

Apr 1983

68.047.655.243.8

May 1983

68.147.555.044.1

Jun 1983

69.047.756.143.7

Jul 1983

69.248.056.744.4

Aug 1983

69.248.456.244.3

Sep 1983

69.348.756.844.8

Oct 1983

69.448.557.143.9

Nov 1983

69.948.758.044.1

Dec 1983

69.948.858.044.1

Jan 1984

70.048.758.144.4

Feb 1984

70.349.059.445.7

Mar 1984

70.349.058.545.6

Apr 1984

70.449.357.846.1

May 1984

70.749.959.346.4

Jun 1984

71.249.758.847.3

Jul 1984

70.849.858.446.9

Aug 1984

70.749.559.547.4

Sep 1984

70.949.659.847.5

Oct 1984

70.949.660.247.3

Nov 1984

71.049.760.647.9

Dec 1984

71.049.960.048.0

Jan 1985

70.950.159.848.4

Feb 1985

70.850.359.647.5

Mar 1985

71.050.559.648.2

Apr 1985

71.050.459.748.5

May 1985

71.150.259.948.0

Jun 1985

70.650.160.148.6

Jul 1985

70.750.259.947.9

Aug 1985

70.950.260.947.8

Sep 1985

71.050.660.347.7

Oct 1985

71.050.759.948.1

Nov 1985

71.050.859.448.0

Dec 1985

71.050.960.148.6

Jan 1986

71.350.960.748.5

Feb 1986

70.950.860.548.5

Mar 1986

70.951.061.048.9

Apr 1986

70.951.060.949.2

May 1986

70.851.261.549.1

Jun 1986

70.951.561.048.9

Jul 1986

70.951.660.648.7

Aug 1986

70.951.759.448.2

Sep 1986

70.951.759.948.8

Oct 1986

70.951.860.349.2

Nov 1986

71.151.760.549.0

Dec 1986

71.251.761.248.7

Jan 1987

71.351.761.248.8

Feb 1987

71.351.961.549.4

Mar 1987

71.252.161.649.2

Apr 1987

71.352.361.649.5

May 1987

71.552.661.349.9

Jun 1987

71.352.561.750.2

Jul 1987

71.452.762.250.7

Aug 1987

71.652.962.951.3

Sep 1987

71.652.662.450.5

Oct 1987

71.752.862.651.5

Nov 1987

71.752.962.751.4

Dec 1987

71.853.162.551.5

Jan 1988

71.953.162.851.2

Feb 1988

72.053.162.150.9

Mar 1988

71.653.261.550.6

Apr 1988

72.253.262.950.1

May 1988

72.052.962.550.1

Jun 1988

72.153.362.550.1

Jul 1988

72.253.362.651.9

Aug 1988

72.253.563.351.4

Sep 1988

72.153.563.051.4

Oct 1988

72.053.863.151.8

Nov 1988

72.154.162.852.1

Dec 1988

72.054.162.952.4

Jan 1989

72.254.463.051.9

Feb 1989

72.454.262.852.0

Mar 1989

72.654.263.151.9

Apr 1989

72.554.262.051.8

May 1989

72.454.262.652.3

Jun 1989

72.854.163.351.6

Jul 1989

72.754.263.752.3

Aug 1989

72.654.463.052.0

Sep 1989

72.054.562.352.0

Oct 1989

72.454.362.451.7

Nov 1989

72.354.762.352.0

Dec 1989

72.354.462.251.9

Jan 1990

72.654.662.852.9

Feb 1990

72.654.563.152.9

Mar 1990

72.654.663.252.8

Apr 1990

72.354.563.252.5

May 1990

72.454.663.352.9

Jun 1990

72.254.463.152.1

Jul 1990

72.154.362.551.4

Aug 1990

71.954.462.451.2

Sep 1990

71.654.262.051.0

Oct 1990

71.654.262.051.2

Nov 1990

71.454.062.051.2

Dec 1990

71.353.961.850.9

Jan 1991

71.053.861.851.1

Feb 1991

70.753.861.750.8

Mar 1991

70.653.762.450.9

Apr 1991

70.754.161.551.1

May 1991

70.453.660.150.9

Jun 1991

70.453.761.150.6

Jul 1991

70.353.661.351.0

Aug 1991

70.253.560.950.3

Sep 1991

70.353.761.951.2

Oct 1991

70.153.761.149.6

Nov 1991

70.053.661.049.7

Dec 1991

69.753.560.750.3

Jan 1992

69.853.860.750.3

Feb 1992

69.653.759.850.3

Mar 1992

69.853.859.850.4

Apr 1992

70.053.959.750.3

May 1992

69.953.859.750.4

Jun 1992

69.953.760.151.0

Jul 1992

70.053.860.051.3

Aug 1992

70.053.860.351.9

Sep 1992

69.953.760.151.4

Oct 1992

69.753.659.650.8

Nov 1992

69.753.760.050.4

Dec 1992

69.853.759.250.6

Jan 1993

69.853.759.949.5

Feb 1993

69.953.760.750.8

Mar 1993

69.953.959.350.5

Apr 1993

69.853.858.850.3

May 1993

70.154.160.250.9

Jun 1993

70.154.159.850.5

Jul 1993

70.254.160.750.7

Aug 1993

70.354.361.151.1

Sep 1993

70.054.260.051.3

Oct 1993

70.054.359.951.6

Nov 1993

70.154.459.551.8

Dec 1993

70.154.659.752.1

Jan 1994

70.254.959.451.5

Feb 1994

70.155.159.851.8

Mar 1994

70.054.960.551.9

Apr 1994

70.155.160.652.2

May 1994

70.355.461.351.7

Jun 1994

70.255.160.852.8

Jul 1994

70.155.260.352.8

Aug 1994

70.555.360.152.7

Sep 1994

70.655.461.052.7

Oct 1994

70.855.561.652.5

Nov 1994

71.055.661.752.3

Dec 1994

71.355.562.652.0

Jan 1995

71.255.562.352.5

Feb 1995

71.355.663.153.4

Mar 1995

71.355.663.353.2

Apr 1995

71.155.762.653.3

May 1995

70.555.661.753.7

Jun 1995

70.855.361.752.9

Jul 1995

70.755.660.852.6

Aug 1995

70.655.760.552.8

Sep 1995

70.855.661.252.5

Oct 1995

70.755.861.454.0

Nov 1995

70.355.961.355.5

Dec 1995

70.455.660.554.6

Jan 1996

70.555.561.054.1

Feb 1996

70.755.760.853.8

Mar 1996

70.755.860.754.1

Apr 1996

70.755.960.754.1

May 1996

70.855.861.354.6

Jun 1996

71.055.960.754.4

Jul 1996

71.156.161.354.7

Aug 1996

71.156.262.254.4

Sep 1996

71.156.460.854.2

Oct 1996

71.356.461.154.8

Nov 1996

70.956.561.154.8

Dec 1996

71.156.461.154.7

Jan 1997

71.056.460.555.0

Feb 1997

71.056.360.754.9

Mar 1997

71.256.660.355.5

Apr 1997

71.356.760.655.4

May 1997

71.556.760.955.1

Jun 1997

71.356.860.954.8

Jul 1997

71.457.061.855.9

Aug 1997

71.457.063.556.5

Sep 1997

71.357.062.456.4

Oct 1997

71.457.062.155.6

Nov 1997

71.757.062.055.8

Dec 1997

71.457.261.156.4

Jan 1998

71.557.062.056.5

Feb 1998

71.557.061.857.0

Mar 1998

71.457.162.757.1

Apr 1998

71.857.063.156.5

May 1998

71.757.162.656.0

Jun 1998

71.657.063.757.1

Jul 1998

71.557.062.857.0

Aug 1998

71.457.162.857.3

Sep 1998

71.657.362.957.0

Oct 1998

71.657.163.857.8

Nov 1998

71.857.163.158.1

Dec 1998

71.757.463.158.5

Jan 1999

71.957.464.058.7

Feb 1999

71.757.362.958.0

Mar 1999

71.757.362.958.1

Apr 1999

71.657.362.758.7

May 1999

71.757.563.658.4

Jun 1999

71.657.463.258.6

Jul 1999

71.657.462.258.7

Aug 1999

71.557.563.258.6

Sep 1999

71.657.462.958.9

Oct 1999

71.557.663.058.7

Nov 1999

71.757.662.958.8

Dec 1999

71.857.663.358.3

Jan 2000

72.257.661.259.0

Feb 2000

72.257.561.558.9

Mar 2000

72.257.561.258.9

Apr 2000

72.158.064.559.0

May 2000

71.957.563.358.8

Jun 2000

72.057.563.258.5

Jul 2000

71.657.363.258.1

Aug 2000

71.957.162.958.2

Sep 2000

71.757.462.958.1

Oct 2000

71.657.463.358.5

Nov 2000

71.757.563.758.7

Dec 2000

71.757.663.358.7

Jan 2001

71.857.663.758.1

Feb 2001

71.657.563.258.5

Mar 2001

71.457.762.658.7

Apr 2001

71.357.262.258.6

May 2001

71.157.262.158.6

Jun 2001

70.957.061.658.6

Jul 2001

70.957.062.158.5

Aug 2001

70.456.661.557.5

Sep 2001

70.856.762.557.0

Oct 2001

70.356.661.256.7

Nov 2001

70.056.660.956.2

Dec 2001

70.056.361.856.1

Jan 2002

69.756.262.055.9

Feb 2002

69.956.661.955.9

Mar 2002

69.856.461.755.3

Apr 2002

69.856.261.855.6

May 2002

70.156.162.555.5

Jun 2002

69.856.260.755.6

Jul 2002

69.756.161.055.3

Aug 2002

69.756.360.955.7

Sep 2002

70.056.461.456.5

Oct 2002

69.756.361.256.1

Nov 2002

69.256.259.055.9

Dec 2002

69.156.259.156.2

Jan 2003

68.956.559.656.4

Feb 2003

69.256.260.255.5

Mar 2003

68.956.359.256.1

Apr 2003

69.056.359.556.1

May 2003

68.856.359.156.8

Jun 2003

68.756.459.455.6

Jul 2003

68.656.159.655.4

Aug 2003

68.656.059.355.6

Sep 2003

68.955.759.555.6

Oct 2003

68.955.959.254.8

Nov 2003

69.056.059.755.7

Dec 2003

69.255.760.054.3

Jan 2004

69.455.760.355.4

Feb 2004

69.156.059.455.7

Mar 2004

69.055.959.755.8

Apr 2004

69.056.058.956.0

May 2004

68.956.159.255.0

Jun 2004

69.256.059.454.7

Jul 2004

69.456.058.555.9

Aug 2004

69.356.059.055.8

Sep 2004

69.155.959.355.6

Oct 2004

69.255.959.555.5

Nov 2004

69.456.059.455.3

Dec 2004

69.256.158.955.4

Jan 2005

69.156.158.855.3

Feb 2005

69.256.058.655.0

Mar 2005

69.456.059.455.0

Apr 2005

69.656.260.255.2

May 2005

69.856.260.855.6

Jun 2005

69.856.160.955.8

Jul 2005

69.856.261.856.0

Aug 2005

69.956.461.255.9

Sep 2005

69.756.460.756.1

Oct 2005

69.756.460.757.0

Nov 2005

69.656.359.356.1

Dec 2005

69.756.360.055.9

Jan 2006

70.056.360.055.9

Feb 2006

70.056.460.756.4

Mar 2006

70.256.461.156.4

Apr 2006

70.056.460.956.0

May 2006

70.056.661.156.6

Jun 2006

70.056.760.356.2

Jul 2006

69.656.860.056.2

Aug 2006

69.956.860.357.1

Sep 2006

70.256.560.056.1

Oct 2006

70.256.860.657.2

Nov 2006

70.256.860.957.1

Dec 2006

70.456.961.657.2

Jan 2007

70.356.861.857.5

Feb 2007

70.156.861.257.2

Mar 2007

70.256.960.456.9

Apr 2007

70.056.360.656.7

May 2007

69.956.660.356.5

Jun 2007

69.856.759.956.7

Jul 2007

69.656.661.456.6

Aug 2007

69.456.561.756.3

Sep 2007

69.556.860.956.4

Oct 2007

69.356.559.856.3

Nov 2007

69.656.660.355.7

Dec 2007

69.456.559.856.1

Jan 2008

69.656.660.956.1

Feb 2008

69.556.560.856.3

Mar 2008

69.356.560.156.6

Apr 2008

69.256.660.256.8

May 2008

69.056.559.656.0

Jun 2008

68.856.459.755.9

Jul 2008

68.656.359.056.1

Aug 2008

68.356.159.955.6

Sep 2008

68.156.158.554.9

Oct 2008

67.856.157.855.1

Nov 2008

67.355.856.755.1

Dec 2008

66.755.656.455.3

Jan 2009

66.255.255.654.8

Feb 2009

65.755.254.953.8

Mar 2009

65.155.054.253.5

Apr 2009

65.054.953.853.4

May 2009

64.854.753.953.0

Jun 2009

64.654.553.553.2

Jul 2009

64.554.553.953.2

Aug 2009

64.254.353.252.6

Sep 2009

63.953.952.851.9

Oct 2009

63.753.752.851.3

Nov 2009

63.653.852.752.0

Dec 2009

63.353.552.751.3

Jan 2010

63.353.952.551.6

Feb 2010

63.453.852.551.8

Mar 2010

63.653.752.551.6

Apr 2010

64.053.753.351.5

May 2010

63.953.654.152.1

Jun 2010

63.853.652.852.2

Jul 2010

63.953.553.251.5

Aug 2010

63.953.553.451.3

Sep 2010

63.853.552.851.2

Oct 2010

63.653.353.451.5

Nov 2010

63.453.453.151.8

Dec 2010

63.653.353.251.8

Jan 2011

63.753.352.651.3

Feb 2011

63.853.252.751.2

Mar 2011

63.853.452.650.9

Apr 2011

63.753.352.550.4

May 2011

63.853.252.050.4

Jun 2011

63.753.052.650.0

Jul 2011

63.653.152.449.9

Aug 2011

63.953.152.550.6

Sep 2011

63.953.253.151.5

Oct 2011

63.953.353.551.7

Nov 2011

64.353.253.050.8

Dec 2011

64.453.154.450.6

Jan 2012

64.352.955.250.9

Feb 2012

64.353.154.052.2

Mar 2012

64.353.254.152.4

Apr 2012

64.353.053.852.6

May 2012

64.353.154.252.0

Jun 2012

64.453.254.352.1

Jul 2012

64.353.053.852.0

Aug 2012

64.153.153.752.2

Sep 2012

64.553.353.652.4

Oct 2012

64.753.354.052.9

Nov 2012

64.653.254.352.2

Dec 2012

64.653.254.051.7

Jan 2013

64.553.054.852.1

Feb 2013

64.553.055.251.6

Mar 2013

64.552.955.351.6

Apr 2013

64.453.254.452.4

May 2013

64.453.254.352.8

Jun 2013

64.553.253.952.0

Jul 2013

64.453.454.852.4

Aug 2013

64.353.554.052.1

Sep 2013

64.453.354.752.1

Oct 2013

64.052.954.451.5

Nov 2013

64.553.154.651.7

Dec 2013

64.553.254.452.1

Jan 2014

64.553.454.452.4

Feb 2014

64.353.654.253.3

Mar 2014

64.853.455.252.8

Apr 2014

64.653.555.452.7

May 2014

64.653.555.352.7

Jun 2014

64.953.556.153.0

Jul 2014

65.053.456.353.0

Aug 2014

65.053.456.352.1

Sep 2014

65.253.457.053.0

Oct 2014

65.353.756.953.1

Nov 2014

65.153.756.253.3

Dec 2014

65.353.656.753.4

Jan 2015

65.353.756.453.2

Feb 2015

65.353.656.753.3

Mar 2015

65.353.656.953.5

Apr 2015

65.553.658.554.2

May 2015

65.553.857.654.2

Jun 2015

65.353.857.154.8

Jul 2015

65.453.657.254.8

Aug 2015

65.453.857.254.8

Sep 2015

65.353.557.154.5

Oct 2015

65.353.757.254.9

Nov 2015

65.254.056.755.0

Dec 2015

65.554.157.955.1

Jan 2016

65.754.157.754.9

Feb 2016

65.954.158.254.5

Mar 2016

65.954.258.354.1

Apr 2016

65.854.058.253.8

May 2016

65.754.158.554.0

Jun 2016

65.953.958.554.1

Jul 2016

65.854.158.354.4

Aug 2016

65.954.158.555.6

Sep 2016

65.854.158.455.3

Oct 2016

65.754.158.055.3

Nov 2016

65.754.158.655.6

Dec 2016

65.754.158.755.7

Jan 2017

65.954.259.656.0

Feb 2017

65.954.459.055.9

Mar 2017

66.054.759.056.0

Apr 2017

66.254.659.855.9

May 2017

66.054.559.756.1

Jun 2017

66.154.659.855.9

Jul 2017

66.054.859.556.2

Aug 2017

66.054.658.955.9

Sep 2017

66.354.860.456.3

Oct 2017

66.054.558.956.2

Nov 2017

65.954.659.056.6

Dec 2017

66.154.559.456.8

Jan 2018

66.354.559.455.8

Feb 2018

66.654.761.456.3

Mar 2018

66.554.760.756.7

Apr 2018

66.554.760.356.0

May 2018

66.554.861.056.6

Jun 2018

66.354.959.757.2

Jul 2018

66.355.260.157.0

Aug 2018

66.154.860.456.1

Sep 2018

66.155.060.257.2

Oct 2018

66.255.160.257.1

Nov 2018

66.455.160.256.7

Dec 2018

66.255.259.656.4

Jan 2019

66.555.260.057.3

Feb 2019

66.555.360.056.7

Mar 2019

66.555.259.956.5

Apr 2019

66.455.260.356.8

May 2019

66.555.060.257.3

Jun 2019

66.655.160.056.7

Jul 2019

66.755.261.257.1

Aug 2019

66.655.460.757.1

Sep 2019

66.655.661.157.4

Oct 2019

66.555.760.957.3

Nov 2019

66.855.561.156.8

Dec 2019

66.755.761.057.9

Jan 2020

66.855.860.457.7

Feb 2020

66.855.960.658.4

Mar 2020

65.654.659.556.1

Apr 2020

57.245.850.447.4

May 2020

58.647.351.448.2

Jun 2020

60.249.551.949.9

Jul 2020

60.650.252.950.3

Aug 2020

62.051.354.151.0

Sep 2020

62.351.253.851.5

Oct 2020

63.052.155.052.5

Nov 2020

62.852.355.153.2

Dec 2020

62.952.255.552.6

Jan 2021

63.252.257.052.9

Feb 2021

63.252.556.452.5

Mar 2021

63.252.857.153.1

Apr 2021

63.452.857.353.6

May 2021

63.552.957.453.8

Jun 2021

63.552.958.353.9

Jul 2021

63.853.357.854.2

Aug 2021

64.153.457.754.8

Sep 2021

64.453.557.955.3

Oct 2021

64.653.658.454.5

Nov 2021

65.053.958.755.1

Dec 2021

65.154.358.255.0

Jan 2022

65.154.660.055.7
Percent distribution of employed Blacks or African Americans and the total workforce by selected industry and sex, 2021 annual averages
Selected industryTotal menTotal womenBlack menBlack women

Construction

12.4%1.7%7.2%0.7%

Manufacturing

12.96.011.25.3

Wholesale and retail trade

13.312.415.011.5

Transportation and utilities

8.73.214.95.3

Information

2.01.52.01.4

Financial activities

6.47.85.37.5

Professional and business services

13.711.411.58.9

Education and health services

11.036.013.640.1

Leisure and hospitality

7.79.08.37.8

Other services

4.35.24.13.9

Public administration

4.94.86.07.3

Note: Data do not sum to 100 percent because values are not shown for agriculture and related industries or for mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction.

A Truckload of Transportation Statistics

BLS recently participated in the North American Transportation Statistics Interchange, better known as the NATS Interchange. (Not to be confused with the local baseball team, as the Washington Nationals are known. I look forward to the day when I’m back in the stands yelling “N-A-T-S, Nats, Nats, Nats — whoooo!” after each run scores. But I digress.)

Like many recent conferences, the NATS Interchange was held virtually and focused on the pandemic—how statistical agencies in the United States, Mexico, and Canada continued operations, produced new data, and are planning for the future. Our friends at the Bureau of Transportation Statistics, part of the U.S. Department of Transportation, led the U.S. effort and invited several other U.S. statistical agencies to share information. BLS was asked to participate in a short session on the transportation-related information we produce that may be useful in measuring the economic recovery. This turned into a great opportunity to focus on the BLS Industry at a Glance feature on our website, and to look further into what BLS has available related to transportation.

We classify workplaces by industry based on their principal product or activity. Industries are categorized using the North American Industry Classification System, or NAICS. BLS releases considerable data by NAICS classification, including employment, wages, workplace safety, and more. The BLS Industry at a Glance webpages bring these different statistics together for over 100 industries. Want to know everything BLS produces for the transportation and warehousing industry classification (NAICS codes 48–49)? It’s all there at Industry at a Glance. Want to dig deeper and look just at the air transportation industry (NAICS code 481)? We’ve got that, too. Of course, we may have less information available as you ask for more detailed classifications, but if we’ve got it, it’ll be there.

Let’s look at a couple of examples, starting with employment. In April 2020, BLS reported a loss of more than 20 million jobs in one month, based on data from the Current Employment Statistics program. The job losses were widespread, including a loss of 570,000 jobs in the transportation and warehousing industry from February to April. That’s a decline of 10 percent from the January 2020, level of 5.7 million workers in this industry. Through December, the sector had recovered about 84 percent of that job loss and still had a net loss of 90,000 jobs since January.

But looking at the overall sector hides some of the details. The job losses in early 2020 occurred in all components of transportation and warehousing except couriers and messengers. This industry recorded an increase of 210,000 employees from January to December 2020, likely due to the surge in online shopping and associated shipping and delivery. While initially losing jobs, employment in warehousing and storage was up 79,000 in December from the March level. All other sectors continue to have net losses. Of particular note is employment in air transportation, which showed inconsistent recovery for several months before recording new jobs losses in October.

Share of January 2020 employment in selected transportation industries through December 2020

Editor’s note: Data for this chart are available in the table below.

Other details you can glean from the Industry at a Glance page for Transportation and Warehousing:

  • 16.1 percent of wage and salary workers in the transportation and warehousing industry were members of a union in 2019, and 17.6 percent were represented by a union.
  • The occupation with the most workers in this industry is heavy and tractor-trailer truck drivers, with nearly 1.1 million workers in 2019. The next largest occupation was school bus drivers, with about 284,000 workers.
  • 948 workers in this industry suffered a fatal work injury in 2019, up from 909 fatalities in 2018.

In preparing for the NATS interchange, BLS took a broader look at the world of transportation statistics. Turns out, if you look beyond the industry classification, you find even more information. For example, BLS programs on prices and spending look at what consumers spend on transportation, and the change in transportation prices over time. From the BLS Consumer Expenditure Surveys, we know the average “consumer unit” (our fancy name for households) spent an average of $10,742 on transportation in 2019, including vehicle purchases and maintenance and public transportation.

The pandemic revealed major disruptions in certain transportation activity, and those disruptions were evident in the BLS Consumer Price Index. The CPI as a whole declined by 0.8 percent in April, the largest one-month decline in more than a decade. Many of the declines were the result of stay-at-home orders and related shutdowns, as prices for gasoline, airfares, and other transportation-related items declined sharply. Of note was a sharp decline in the price of gasoline—down over 20 percent in April.

Percent change in consumer prices for transportation-related items, April and May 2020

Editor’s note: Data for this chart are available in the table below.

To stretch the transportation concept just a little further, the BLS Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries records the “event or exposure” that results in each fatal work injury. Of the 5,333 fatal work injuries in 2019, nearly 40 percent were the result of a transportation incident. Such incidents may occur to workers in the transportation industry, such as truck drivers, but also to many other workers, including farmers, protective service officers, landscapers, and construction laborers. Transportation incidents are most often on a roadway but can also involve aircraft, rail, and water vehicles.

The NATS interchange asked BLS to consider what data might be helpful in tracking the recovery. Many of the transportation statistics discussed here, such as employment, consumer expenditures, and price changes, will likely provide a clue about returning to activity levels reached before the pandemic.

This exercise provided an opportunity to dig a little deeper into the transportation and warehousing industry and to expand the definition to explore related information. The BLS Industry at a Glance webpages offer that same opportunity to explore the current economic landscape of over 100 industries.

Share of January 2020 employment in selected transportation industries through December 2020
IndustryJanuaryAprilDecember

Transportation and warehousing

100.0%90.0%98.4%

Air transportation

100.085.176.9

Warehousing and storage

100.093.4107.9

Couriers and messengers

100.0100.2124.5
Percent change in consumer prices for transportation-related items, April and May 2020
ItemAprilMay

Gasoline (all types)

-20.6-3.5

Car and truck rental

-16.6-3.5

Airline fares

-15.2-4.9

Motor vehicle insurance

-7.2-8.9

Lodging away from home

-7.1-1.5

Labor Day 2020 Fast Facts

I have been Commissioner of Labor Statistics for about a year and a half now, and what a time it has been! BLS has faced many challenges throughout its history, but none quite like those from the COVID-19 pandemic. All of our staff moved to full-time telework March 16, and I am so proud of how well they have worked under trying circumstances. In a very short time—days, not weeks—we had to change our data collection processes to eliminate in-person collection and move to a combination of telephone, internet, and video. We recognize how challenging it is for our survey respondents to provide data during the pandemic, and I am very grateful for their cooperation. Response rates have dipped a bit in some programs, but the quality of our samples remains strong across the board. Despite all of the challenges, BLS has been able to produce all of our economic reports without interruption.

The pandemic has taught us there’s an unlimited appetite for data. The U.S. statistical system is working to satisfy that appetite. At BLS, we strive for more and better data to understand the hardships caused by the pandemic. Starting in May we added new questions to our monthly survey of households. The questions ask whether people teleworked or worked from home because of the pandemic; whether people were unable to work because their employers closed or lost business; whether they were paid for that missed work; and whether the pandemic prevented job-seeking activities. We continue to gather new data from those questions.

We collaborated with our partners at other U.S. statistical agencies to find out how many people received payments from the Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security (CARES) Act, signed into law on March 27, 2020. For those who received payments, we asked how they used them.

Soon we will have new data about how businesses have responded to the pandemic. These data are from a brand new survey that seeks to identify changes to business operations, employment, workforce flexibilities, and benefits as a result of the pandemic.

These are just a few examples of how our data collection has responded to the pandemic. Good data are essential for identifying problems, guiding policymakers, and gauging whether and how fast conditions improve for workers, jobseekers, families, and businesses.

Labor Day is a good time to reflect on where we are. Despite these difficult times, I hope you are able to enjoy the long holiday weekend. Take a moment to look at some fast facts we’ve compiled on the current picture of our labor market.

Working

Our monthly payroll survey shows that employment had been increasing through February 2020. With March came the pandemic and the job losses related to it. We lost more than 22 million jobs in March and April and then regained about 48 percent of them in May, June, July, and August.

The employment–population ratio was 56.5 percent in August. This ratio is the number of people employed as a percent of the population age 16 and older. The ratio was 61.1 percent in February.

There were 7.6 million people working part time for economic reasons in August 2020. These are people who would have preferred full-time employment but were working part time because their hours had been reduced or they were unable to find full-time jobs. This number was down from 10.9 million in April. The number was 4.3 million in February.

Not Working

The unemployment rate reached 14.7 percent in April 2020. That was the highest rate, and the largest over-the-month increase, in the history of the data back to January 1948. The rate has fallen since then, reaching 8.4 percent in August. The rate was 3.5 percent back in February, the lowest since 1969.

We have noted the challenges of measuring unemployment during this pandemic. The rates we have seen since March likely understate unemployment, but the trend is clear. The rate rose sharply in March and even more sharply in April and has trended down since April.

Among the major worker groups in August 2020, the unemployment rate was 8.4 percent for adult women and 8.0 percent for adult men. The rate for teenagers was 16.1 percent. The unemployment rate was 13.0 percent for Blacks or African Americans, 10.7 percent for Asians, 10.5 percent for Hispanics or Latinos, and 7.3 percent for Whites.

Job Openings

On the last business day of June 2020, the number of nonfarm job openings was 5.9 million. That was a decline of 18 percent from June 2019.

The ratio of unemployed people per job opening was 3.0 in June 2020. Since the most recent peak of 4.6 in April 2020, the ratio of unemployed people per job opening declined in May and June. In February 2020, there was 0.8 unemployment person per job opening.

Pay and Benefits

Civilian compensation (wage and benefit) costs increased 2.7 percent in June 2020 from a year earlier. After adjusting for inflation, real compensation costs rose 2.1 percent over the year.

Paid leave benefits are available to most private industry workers. The access rates in March 2019 were 73 percent for sick leave, 79 percent for vacation, and 79 percent for holidays.

In March 2019, civilian workers with employer-provided medical plans paid 20 percent of the cost of medical care premiums for single coverage and 33 percent for family coverage.

Productivity

Labor productivity—output per hour worked—in the U.S. nonfarm business sector grew 2.8 percent from the second quarter of 2019 to the second quarter of 2020. That increase reflects large pandemic-related declines in output (−11.2 percent) and hours worked (−13.6 percent).

Safety and Health

In 2018, there were 5,250 fatal workplace injuries. That was a 2-percent increase from 2017 and was the highest number of fatal work injuries in a decade. It was, however, below the numbers of workplace deaths in the 1990s, when over 6,000 fatalities occurred per year.

There were about 2.8 million nonfatal workplace injuries and illnesses reported in 2018 by private industry employers. This resulted in an incidence rate of 2.8 cases per 100 full-time workers in 2018. The rate is down from 9.2 cases per 100 full-time workers in 1976.

Unionization

The union membership rate—the percent of wage and salary workers who were members of unions—was 10.3 percent in 2019, down by 0.2 percentage point from 2018. In 1983, the first year for which comparable union data are available, the union membership rate was 20.1 percent.

Total employer compensation costs for private-industry union workers were $48.57 and for nonunion workers $34.16 per employee hour worked in March 2020. The cost of benefits accounted for 40.5 percent of total compensation (or $19.65) for union workers and 28.4 percent (or $9.71) for nonunion workers.

Looking to the Future

We released our latest set of long-term employment projections September 1. We project employment to grow by 6.0 million jobs from 2019 to 2029. That is an annual growth rate of 0.4 percent, slower than the 2009–19 annual growth rate of 1.3 percent. The healthcare and social assistance sector is projected to add the most new jobs, and 6 of the 10 fastest growing occupations are related to healthcare. These projections do not include impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic and response efforts. We develop the projections using models based on historical data. The historical data for this set of projections cover the period through 2019, so all input data precede the pandemic. We will continue to examine the effects of the pandemic as we update our projections next year and the years that follow.

From an American worker’s first job to retirement and everything in between, BLS has a stat for that! Want to learn more? Follow us on Twitter @BLS_gov.

Labor Day 2019 Fast Facts

I have been Commissioner of Labor Statistics for 5 months now, and I continue to be amazed by the range and quality of data we publish about the U.S. labor market and the well-being of American workers. As we like to say at BLS, we really do have a stat for that! We won’t rest on what we have done, however. We continue to strive for more data and better data to help workers, jobseekers, students, businesses, and policymakers make informed decisions. Labor Day is a good time to reflect on where we are. This year is the 125th anniversary of celebrating Labor Day as a national holiday. Before you set out to enjoy the long holiday weekend, take a moment to look at some fast facts we’ve compiled on the current picture of our labor market.

Working

Working or Looking for Work

  • The civilian labor force participation rate—the share of the population working or looking for work—was 63.0 percent in July 2019. The rate had trended down from the 2000s through the early 2010s, but it has remained fairly steady since 2014.

Not Working

  • The unemployment rate was 3.7 percent in July. In April and May, the rate hit its lowest point, 3.6 percent, since 1969.
  • In July, there were 1.2 million long-term unemployed (those jobless for 27 weeks or more). This represented 19.2 percent of the unemployed, down from a peak of 45.5 percent in April 2010 but still above the 16-percent share in late 2006.
  • Among the major worker groups, the unemployment rate for teenagers was 12.8 percent in July 2019, while the rates were 3.4 percent for both adult women and adult men. The unemployment rate was 6.0 percent for Blacks or African Americans, 4.5 percent for Hispanics or Latinos, 2.8 percent for Asians, and 3.3 percent for Whites.

Job Openings

Pay and Benefits

  • Average weekly earnings rose by 2.6 percent from July 2018 to July 2019. After adjusting for inflation in consumer prices, real average weekly earnings were up 0.8 percent during this period.
  • Civilian compensation (wage and benefit) costs increased 2.7 percent in June 2019 from a year earlier. After adjusting for inflation, real compensation costs rose 1.1 percent over the year.
  • Paid leave benefits are available to most private industry workers. The access rates in March 2018 were 71 percent for sick leave, 77 percent for vacation, and 78 percent for holidays.
  • About 91 percent of civilian workers with access to paid holidays receive Labor Day as a paid holiday.
  • In March 2018, civilian workers with employer-provided medical plans paid 20 percent of the cost of medical care premiums for single coverage and 32 percent for family coverage.

Productivity

  • Labor productivity—output per hour worked—in the U.S. nonfarm business sector grew 1.8 percent from the second quarter of 2018 to the second quarter of 2019.
  • Some industries had much faster growth in 2018, including electronic shopping and mail-order houses (10.6 percent) and wireless telecommunications carriers (10.1 percent).
  • Multifactor productivity in the private nonfarm business sector rose 1.0 percent in 2018. That growth is 0.2 percentage point higher than the average annual rate of 0.8 percent from 1987 to 2018.

Safety and Health

Unionization

  • The union membership rate—the percent of wage and salary workers who were members of unions—was 10.5 percent in 2018, down by 0.2 percentage point from 2017. In 1983, the first year for which comparable union data are available, the union membership rate was 20.1 percent.

Work Stoppages

  • In the first 7 months of 2019, there have been 307,500 workers involved in major work stoppages that began this year. (Major work stoppages are strikes or lockouts that involve 1,000 or more workers and last one full shift or longer.) For all of 2018, there were 485,200 workers involved in major work stoppages, the largest number since 1986, when about 533,100 workers were involved.
  • There have been 15 work stoppages beginning in 2019. For all of 2018, 20 work stoppages began during the year.

Education

  • Occupations that typically require a bachelor’s degree for entry made up 22 percent of employment in 2018. This educational category includes registered nurses, teachers at the kindergarten through secondary levels, and many management, business and financial operations, computer, and engineering occupations.
  • For 18 of the 30 occupations projected to grow the fastest between 2016 and 2026, some postsecondary education is typically required for entry. Be sure to check out our updated employment projections, covering 2018 to 2028, that we will publish September 4!

From an American worker’s first job to retirement and everything in between, BLS has a stat for that! Want to learn more? Follow us on Twitter @BLS_gov.

Why This Counts: What Do We Know about Strikes and Lockouts?

Strikes and lockouts? Aren’t those 1940s-50s-60s economic activities? Sounds like we are taking a trip to the distant past with Sherman and Mr. Peabody in the WABAC machine. (For you younger readers, these characters can be found in the Adventures of Rocky and Bullwinkle and Friends, a TV show from the early 1960s.) BLS first collected data on labor and management disputes (work stoppages) in the 1880s. BLS has continuously published work stoppage information since 1947, for events covering at least 1,000 workers. Recently, high profile work stoppages by public school teachers and others have kept these types of activities in the news.

What are work stoppages?

The work stoppages program provides monthly and annual data on major work stoppages involving 1,000 or more workers and lasting one full shift or longer. For this report, BLS does not differentiate between strikes and lockouts.

  • Strikes are a temporary stoppage of work by a group of employees to express a grievance, enforce a demand, or protest the terms, conditions, or provisions of a contract.
  • Lockouts are a temporary denial of employment by management.

Detailed monthly reports from 1993 to the present provide the organizations and unions involved, along with the locations, industries, number of workers directly involved, and days of idleness.

Who uses these data?

Work stoppages provide media, researchers, labor relations specialists, unions, and government agencies with information about labor-management disputes. While the work stoppages program does not report on the nature of the dispute, identifying the details of parties involved helps users assess the impact of compensation trends, union membership and activity, and legislation.

Has work stoppage activity changed over time?

Since BLS began reporting on work stoppages, declines in union membership, the growth of the service industry, technological changes, and other factors have led to a significant reduction in the number of work stoppages. Between 1947 and 1956, there were 3,438 work stoppages. In the decade from 2007 to 2016, there were 143 stoppages. In 2017, there were 7 work stoppages, and in 2018 there were 20.

Number of work stoppages by decade

Editor’s note: Data for this chart are available in the table below.

Annual work stoppages involving 1,000 or more workers, 1947–2018

Editor’s note: Data for this chart are available in the table below.

Decreases in the number of work stoppages and the number of workers involved are especially noticeable during recessions. These levels reached an all-time low at the end of the 2007–09 recession. In 1952, there were 2,746,000 workers involved in work stoppages, whereas in 2018 there were 485,000 workers involved.

Number of workers involved in major work stoppages, 1947–2018

Editor’s note: Data for this chart are available in the table below.

Another way to evaluate the impact of work stoppages on the national economy is by looking at the number of days workers are away from work because of strikes or lockouts. The number of days of idleness reached a peak in 1959, at about 60,850,000 days. The second largest number was in 1970, with 52,761,000 of days of idleness. In 2018, there were 2,815,400 days of idleness. Number of days idle from work stoppages involving 1,000 or more workers, 1947–2018

Editor’s note: Data for this chart are available in the table below.

Where are work stoppages most prevalent?

Of the 559 major work stoppages between 1993 and 2018, 423 occurred in private industry, 95 in local government, 40 in state government, and 1 in both state and local government. Most stoppages during that period, 458, occurred within individual states, while 101 occurred in two or more states. California, the state with the largest share of national employment (13.6 percent), had the largest share of work stoppages, 24.2 percent. Texas, which accounts for 9.6 percent of national employment, accounted for 2.9 percent of all work stoppages (excluding interstate and nationally reported stoppages).

Share of national employment and share of major work stoppages by state, 1993–2018

Editor’s note: Data for this chart are available in the table below.

These data also allow users to evaluate differences in the number of work stoppages by industry. From 1993 to 2018, there were almost as many stoppages in manufacturing (158) as the next two industries combined. Health care and social assistance had 83 work stoppages, while educational services had 79 work stoppages. Of the 79 educational services stoppages, 75 were in state and local government, with 50 occurring in local government and 25 in state government.Number of major work stoppages by industry, 1993–2018

Editor’s note: Data for this chart are available in the table below.

Want to know more?

We hope this discussion of work stoppages and a look to the past was almost as good as using the WABAC machine!

Number of work stoppages by decade
Decade Number
1947–1956 3,438
1957– 1966 2,500
1967–1976 3,321
1977–1986 1,446
1987–1996 404
1997–2006 240
2007–2016 140
Annual work stoppages involving 1,000 or more workers, 1947–2018
Year Number of work stoppages Number of workers involved Number of days idle
1947 270 1,629,000 25,720,000
1948 245 1,435,000 26,127,000
1949 262 2,537,000 43,420,000
1950 424 1,698,000 30,390,000
1951 415 1,462,000 15,070,000
1952 470 2,746,000 48,820,000
1953 437 1,623,000 18,130,000
1954 265 1,075,000 16,630,000
1955 363 2,055,000 21,180,000
1956 287 1,370,000 26,840,000
1957 279 887,000 10,340,000
1958 332 1,587,000 17,900,000
1959 245 1,381,000 60,850,000
1960 222 896,000 13,260,000
1961 195 1,031,000 10,140,000
1962 211 793,000 11,760,000
1963 181 512,000 10,020,000
1964 246 1,183,000 16,220,000
1965 268 999,000 15,140,000
1966 321 1,300,000 16,000,000
1967 381 2,192,000 31,320,000
1968 392 1,855,000 35,367,000
1969 412 1,576,000 29,397,000
1970 381 2,468,000 52,761,000
1971 298 2,516,000 35,538,000
1972 250 975,000 16,764,000
1973 317 1,400,000 16,260,000
1974 424 1,796,000 31,809,000
1975 235 965,000 17,563,000
1976 231 1,519,000 23,962,000
1977 298 1,212,000 21,258,000
1978 219 1,006,000 23,774,000
1979 235 1,021,000 20,409,000
1980 187 795,000 20,844,000
1981 145 729,000 16,908,000
1982 96 656,000 9,061,000
1983 81 909,000 17,461,000
1984 62 376,000 8,499,000
1985 54 324,000 7,079,000
1986 69 533,000 11,861,000
1987 46 174,000 4,481,000
1988 40 118,000 4,381,000
1989 51 452,000 16,996,000
1990 44 185,000 5,926,000
1991 40 392,000 4,584,000
1992 35 364,000 3,989,000
1993 35 182,000 3,981,000
1994 45 322,000 5,021,000
1995 31 192,000 5,771,000
1996 37 273,000 4,889,000
1997 29 339,000 4,497,000
1998 34 387,000 5,116,000
1999 17 73,000 1,996,000
2000 39 394,000 20,419,000
2001 29 99,000 1,151,000
2002 19 46,000 659,600
2003 14 129,200 4,091,200
2004 17 170,700 3,344,100
2005 22 99,600 1,736,100
2006 20 70,100 2,687,500
2007 21 189,200 1,264,800
2008 15 72,200 1,954,100
2009 5 12,500 124,100
2010 11 44,500 302,300
2011 19 112,500 1,020,200
2012 19 148,100 1,130,800
2013 15 54,500 289,900
2014 11 34,300 200,200
2015 12 47,300 740,000
2016 15 99,400 1,543,400
2017 7 25,300 439,800
2018 20 485,200 2,815,400
Share of national employment and share of major work stoppages by state, 1993–2018
State Share of national employment Share of major work stoppages
California 13.6% 24.2%
Texas 9.6 2.9
New York 6.7 8.8
Florida 7.1 0.7
Pennsylvania 4.4 8.1
Illinois 4.4 9.1
Ohio 4.0 7.5
Georgia 3.5 1.3
Michigan 3.4 6.3
North Carolina 3.4 1.1
New Jersey 3.1 3.8
Number of major work stoppages by industry, 1993–2018
Industry Number of stoppages
Manufacturing 158
Health care and social assistance 83
Educational services 79
Construction 61
Transportation and warehousing 54
Public administration 23
Retail Trade 22
Information 20
Utilities 14
Administrative and support and waste management and remediation services 12
Accomodation and food services 10
Mining 8
Wholesale trade 4
Finance and insurance 4
Real estate and rental and leasin 3
Professional, scientific, and technical services 2
Arts, entertainment, and recreation 2