Department of Labor Logo United States Department of Labor
Dot gov

The .gov means it's official.
Federal government websites often end in .gov or .mil. Before sharing sensitive information, make sure you're on a federal government site.

Https

The site is secure.
The https:// ensures that you are connecting to the official website and that any information you provide is encrypted and transmitted securely.

Tag Archives: Family

Paid Leave Benefits When You Are Unable to Work

Many American workers have lost jobs or had their work hours reduced as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic and response efforts. Many other workers still have jobs, but their work environment probably has changed since March. It’s reasonable to assume more people are working from home now than the 29 percent we reported who could work at home in 2017–18. At BLS we are still working to provide you with the latest economic data and analysis, but nearly all of us are now working from home, instead of in our offices.

Still, there are many jobs that just can’t be done from home. In these challenging times, I know we all are grateful for the healthcare workers who are treating patients who have COVID-19 and other medical conditions. We’re grateful for our emergency responders and for the truck drivers, warehouse workers, delivery workers, and staff in grocery stores, pharmacies, and other retail establishments that provide us with the necessities of daily life. As much as I think of these men and women as superheroes, I know they are humans. Even extraordinary humans can get sick, or they may need to take care of family members who get sick. Let’s look at the leave benefits available to them if they need it.

According to our National Compensation Survey, 73 percent of private industry workers were covered by paid sick leave in 2019. Among state and local government workers, 91 percent were covered by paid sick leave. The availability of sick leave benefits varied by occupation, ranging from 94 percent of managers in private industry to 56 percent of workers in construction and extraction occupations.

The share with paid sick leave also varies by industry, pay level, size of establishment, and other characteristics of jobs and employers. The following chart shows sick leave availability for employers of different sizes.

Percent of workers in private industry with access to paid sick leave by establishment size, March 2019

Editor’s note: Data for this chart are available in the table below.

Paid sick leave plans commonly provide a fixed number of days per year. The number of days may vary by the worker’s length of service with the employer. The average in private industry in 2019 was 7 paid sick leave days.

Average number of paid sick leave days per year for workers in private industry, by length of service and establishment size, March 2019

Editor’s note: Data for this chart are available in the table below.

About half of workers with such a plan could carry over unused days from year to year.

We recently posted a new fact sheet on paid sick leave that provides even more detail.

In the past few years, some states and cities have mandated that certain employers provide their workers with paid sick leave. We include these mandated plans in our data on paid leave. A Federal law passed in March 2020 requires paid sick leave for certain workers affected by COVID-19.

In addition to paid sick leave, some employers offer a short-term disability insurance plan when employees can’t work because of illness. These plans are sometimes called sickness and accident insurance plans. This was traditionally a blue-collar or union benefit, and it often replaces only a portion of an employee’s pay. In 2019, 42 percent of private industry workers had access to such a benefit. Like sick leave, the availability of short-term disability benefits varies widely across worker groups. Some states provide Temporary Disability Insurance plans that provide similar benefits.

While the National Compensation Survey asks employers what benefits they offer to workers, the American Time Use Survey recently asked workers whether paid leave is available from their employer and whether they used it. In 2017–18, two-thirds of workers had access to paid leave at their jobs. These data include information on age, sex, and other characteristics. For example, younger workers (ages 15–24) and older workers (age 65 and older) were less likely to have access to paid leave than were other workers.

Percent of workers with access to paid leave by age, 2017–18 averages

Editor’s note: Data for this chart are available in the table below.

While the survey did not ask workers to classify the type of leave, they were asked the reasons they could take leave. Of those with paid leave available, 94 percent could use it for their own illness or medical care, and 78 percent could use it for the illness or medical care of another family member.

I hope you and your loved ones remain healthy and are able to take care of each other in these challenging times. High-quality data will be vital in the public health response to the COVID-19 pandemic. High-quality data also will be vital for measuring the economic impact of the pandemic and recovery from it. My colleagues at BLS and our fellow U.S. statistical agencies remain on the job to provide you with gold standard data.

Percent of workers in private industry with access to paid sick leave by establishment size, March 2019
Establishment sizePercent

1–49 workers

64%

50–99 workers

68

100–499 workers

80

500 workers or more

89
Average number of paid sick leave days per year for workers in private industry, by length of service and establishment size, March 2019
Length of serviceAll establishments 1 to 49 workers50 to 99 workers100 to 499 workers500 workers or more

After 1 year

76678

After 5 years

77679

After 10 years

77779

After 20 years

77779
Percent of workers with access to paid leave by age, 2017–18 averages
AgePercent

Ages 15–24

35.4%

Ages 25–34

70.3

Ages 35–44

71.7

Ages 45–54

74.4

Ages 55–64

74.2

Age 65 and older

51.7

New Data on Balancing Family Needs with Work

Among the many challenges for today’s families is the balance between caregiving and the demands of working outside the home. Some workers are even sandwiched between the need to provide both childcare and eldercare. New information from the Bureau of Labor Statistics shows that about two out of three employees have paid time off available to meet these needs.

Interest among federal, state, and local policymakers in paid time off and other job flexibilities motivated the U.S. Department of Labor’s Women’s Bureau to sponsor an extra set of questions in the American Time Use Survey. The 2017–18 Leave and Job Flexibilities Module gives us data on the characteristics of wage and salary workers who have access to paid and unpaid leave in their jobs. The module also asked questions about workers who work at home and whether they have flexible work schedules. We also know more about workers who do not have access to leave and job flexibilities. Because we collected the data directly from workers, we could ask them about their experiences, such as the reasons they take leave, or don’t take it even when they need to, and why they work at home.

We now know that 66 percent of U.S. wage and salary workers were able to take paid leave from their jobs in 2017–18. Workers were most often able to use paid leave for a vacation and if they were sick or needed medical care. One area of interest is about people who provide unpaid eldercare. The survey showed that 64 percent of eldercare providers who were employed were able to use paid leave to provide elder caregiving. Another 28 percent of these caregivers were not able to take paid leave for this reason, and 8 percent didn’t know if their employer would allow them to use paid leave to provide eldercare.

Percent of workers with access to paid leave who could use it for the following reasons, 2017–18

Editor’s note: Data for this chart are available in the table below.

We also have learned that 36 million workers (25 percent) sometimes worked at home, and they did so for different reasons. Twenty-four percent worked at home because of a personal preference, 23 percent did so to catch up on work, 22 percent worked at home to coordinate their work schedule with personal or family needs, and 16 percent did so because their job required it. Among those who sometimes worked at home, men and women had different reasons for doing so. Women were more likely than men to work at home to finish or catch up on work and to coordinate their work schedule with personal or family needs. Men were more likely than women to work at home because of a personal preference.

Percent of workers who work at home by main reason, 2017–18

Editor’s note: Data for this chart are available in the table below.

We published these results and more in two recent news releases. One news release focused on workers’ access to leave, their use of leave, and an unmet need for leave. The second focused on workers’ job flexibilities and work schedules.

These releases present data on:

  • Access to paid and unpaid time off
  • Use of paid and unpaid time off
  • Needing to take leave from a job but deciding not to take it
  • Flexible work hours
  • Knowing work schedule in advance
  • Working from home

The releases provide information by:

  • Gender
  • Age
  • Race
  • Hispanic or Latino ethnicity
  • Educational attainment
  • Full- or part-time status
  • Earnings

We also have data files that allow researchers to analyze the data and gain even more insights. Following the policies of BLS and the U.S. Census Bureau to protect the privacy of survey respondents, these data files do not have any information that could identify individual participants.

Percent of workers with access to paid leave who could use it for the following reasons, 2017–18
ReasonYesNoDon’t know

Vacation

95%5%0%

Own illness or medical care

9461

Illness or medical care of another family member

78166

Birth or adoption of a child

76159

Errands or personal reasons

70282

Childcare, other than for illness

65314

Eldercare

64288

Note: The estimates for “childcare, other than for illness” are for workers who were parents of household children under age 18. The estimates for “eldercare” are only for workers who were eldercare providers.

Percent of workers who work at home by main reason, 2017–18
ReasonTotalMenWomen

Personal preference

24%27%21%

Finish or catch up on work

232126

Coordinate work schedule with personal or family needs

222025

Job requires working at home

161616

Reduce commuting time or expense

9109

Weather

443

Other

221