Tag Archives: Janet Norwood

Honoring Two Fearless BLS Visionaries

In January 2013, when I was sworn in as the 14th Commissioner of the Bureau of Labor Statistics, I couldn’t help thinking about my predecessors in the position. Each of the previous 13 commissioners has played a unique and pivotal part in the development of this agency in pursuit of our mission to produce data vital to the economic health of our country. I often focused on the first commissioner, Carroll D. Wright, and the 10th, and first female commissioner, Janet L. Norwood. They both played extraordinary roles in making BLS today one of the preeminent statistical agencies in the world.

For this reason, yesterday was an extremely special day for BLS and for me. U.S. Department of Labor Secretary Tom Perez inducted Carroll Wright and Janet Norwood into the Labor Hall of Honor—on World Statistics Day, no less!

Commissioner Erica Groshen speaks at the Labor Hall of Honor with Labor Secretary Tom Perez, Federal Reserve Board Chair Janet Yellen, and Clark University president David Angel

Commissioner Erica Groshen speaks at the Labor Hall of Honor induction ceremony with Labor Secretary Tom Perez, Federal Reserve Board Chair Janet Yellen, and Clark University President David Angel.

 

The power of statistics and how they help people make informed decisions was certainly on display. The induction ceremony also showed the outsized influence these two extraordinary statisticians and public servants have had on BLS and the country.

For example, did you know that Carroll Wright was self-trained as a statistician, yet served as BLS Commissioner, Chief of the Massachusetts Bureau of Labor Statistics, Superintendent of the Decennial Census, and President of the American Statistical Association? Even so, I believe his greatest accomplishment was his profound commitment that statistics produced by BLS would be devoted to “the fearless publication of the facts without regard to the influence those facts may have upon any party’s position or any partisan’s views.” I love the word “fearless” here—an unusual but totally apt tribute to BLS data nerds!

Wright’s work to ensure the impartiality of government statistics is still the bedrock of our agency and his greatest legacy. Articulating this doctrine and fashioning the steps to achieve it (as obvious as they might seem today) were key innovations when he introduced them.

Labor Secretary Tom Perez speaks at the Labor Hall of Honor with Federal Reserve Board Chair Janet Yellen, Clark University president David Angel, and Commissioner Erica Groshen.

Labor Secretary Tom Perez speaks at the Labor Hall of Honor induction ceremony with Federal Reserve Board Chair Janet Yellen, Clark University President David Angel, and Commissioner Erica Groshen.

 

Almost 100 years later, Janet Norwood carried on in Wright’s tradition. After rising through the ranks as a career employee at BLS, she was nominated to be the 10th Commissioner. Janet served as BLS Commissioner for 13 years, spanning three Presidential administrations. When she retired in 1991 after 28 years of service at BLS, the New York Times said she had a “near-legendary reputation for nonpartisanship.”

She was also responsible for making BLS what it is today—a model workplace with professional, dedicated employees fearlessly (!!) producing quality statistics for U.S. policymakers, businesses, and families. BLS rose to new heights of prominence as a result, with Janet testifying before Congress an amazing 137 times during her 13 years as Commissioner!

Both Carroll Wright and Janet Norwood set new standards for BLS Commissioners, and it was truly a highlight of my time as Commissioner to see them inducted into the prestigious Labor Hall of Honor.

Why This Counts: Tracking Labor Market Experience over a Lifetime

The U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics is best known for our monthly job and inflation reports. We also publish data on many other topics, ranging from how Americans spend their time and money to workplace injuries and the growth of entrepreneurship. My blog series, “Why This Counts,” explains why we conduct our surveys and how people can use the data at work and home. I hope this series will take the mystery out of our data and make our work come to life for both new and advanced users.

Today I want to tell you about a fascinating group of surveys called the National Longitudinal Surveys. It’s especially timely to talk about these surveys for two reasons: 1) we published a news release this week with the latest data from one of the surveys, and 2) the program is one of the important legacies of former BLS Commissioner Janet Norwood, who passed away recently.

The National Longitudinal Surveys stand out because they are designed to answer key long-term questions about people’s paths through life. Most of our measures about the labor market and economy focus on current conditions. What’s the national unemployment rate? How rapidly is employment growing in California or North Dakota or Georgia? How many job openings are there in manufacturing? What are the trends in consumer prices for food, energy, clothing, and shelter? It’s important to have up-to-date answers for these and other economic questions. But some questions take longer to answer—years or even decades.

Some long-term questions we care about include: How many jobs do people hold over their lifetimes? How do earnings grow at different stages of workers’ careers? The surveys designed to answer these and other long-term questions are called “longitudinal” surveys. What’s that mean?

A longitudinal survey asks questions about the same people at different points in their lives. Longitudinal surveys are useful for studying changes that occur over long periods. These surveys are also useful for examining cause-and-effect relationships. For example, how do events that happened when a person was in high school affect labor market success as an adult? This week we published a new report that looks at the experiences of baby boomers from age 18 to age 48.

The survey follows a set of people born in the latter years of the post-World War II baby boom, 1957 to 1964, and living in the United States when the survey began in 1979. To answer my earlier questions—using just-released data—these baby boomers held an average of 11.7 jobs from age 18 to age 48. Their inflation-adjusted hourly earnings grew the most during their late teens and early twenties, and earnings generally grew faster for college graduates than for people with less education.

Real wage growth-final

The survey doesn’t just ask about labor market activity. It also asks about education, training, health, marriages and other relationships, children, use of government programs, juvenile crimes and arrests, drug and alcohol use, and much more. Why do we ask about these topics, some of which are pretty sensitive? In short, we’re trying to understand all the things that affect or are affected by labor market activity. That covers nearly every part of our lives.

Before this survey of baby boomers began in 1979, four other longitudinal surveys began in the 1960s of earlier generations. BLS began another survey in 1997 that represents people born in the years 1980 to 1984 and living in the United States at the start of the survey. We only still conduct the surveys of the two more recent generations, but we have learned so much from all the surveys. These surveys are some of the most analyzed in the social sciences. Researchers in economics, sociology, psychology, education, and health sciences have used the surveys to examine a broad range of topics. Here are just a few examples of what researchers have learned from the surveys:

  • Nobel Prize winner James Heckman and his colleagues found that noncognitive skills, such as motivation and perseverance, are as important to future labor market success as are skills such as reading and math.
  • People who obtain a GED or other exam-certified high school equivalent have labor market outcomes that are similar to those of high school dropouts, rather than to people who earn a regular high school diploma.
  • The labor market effects of a 4-year college degree are similar for those who start at a 4-year college and those who transfer from a 2-year college to a 4-year college.
  • Obesity is not only a health concern, but a labor market concern. Workers pay a price for obesity with lower wages and employment, and this price is higher for women than men.
  • Low birth weight is a better predictor than cognitive test scores of whether people either work or attend school at ages 24 to 27. Birth weight also is a better predictor of adult wages.

You can find information about thousands of other research studies in the National Longitudinal Surveys bibliography.

Although we learn a lot each time we update our monthly and quarterly data on employment, compensation, prices, and productivity, there is so much we could not learn without these longitudinal surveys.

This is all possible thanks to Janet Norwood—and to the people who have agreed to participate in the surveys for so long—so that we can understand people’s paths over time!

Statement by BLS Commissioner Erica L. Groshen on the Passing of Former Commissioner Janet Norwood

NorwoodJanet Norwood was an icon here at BLS, and my colleagues and I are all deeply saddened by her passing.

Janet’s 28-year career at BLS was capped by serving as BLS Commissioner for 12 years, spanning three Presidential administrations. During her tenure, she rightly earned a reputation for integrity, professionalism, and impartiality.

She set the standard for BLS Commissioners for generations to come, and these attributes are ones that BLS leaders today strive to emulate. I know Janet will continue to inspire all who follow in her footsteps here at BLS.

Janet successfully ushered BLS through a time of tremendous change and modernization. As a consequence of her visionary leadership, the agency emerged as a model workplace. We are stronger and more dynamic, and the statistics we produce rose to new heights of prominence as a result of her efforts.

Her legacy lives on here in the halls of BLS—and on our website—where the tangible results of her many accomplishments can still be seen.‎ Simply put, all U.S. policymakers, businesses, and families‎ can make better decisions every day because of Janet Norwood’s work at BLS.

Whether we work in our regional field offices or our headquarters in Washington, we all owe Janet a debt of gratitude for her unflinching leadership and service to this agency and the nation. My thoughts and prayers are with her family during this difficult time.

You can learn more about Commissioner Norwood’s life and career in these obituaries.

The New York Times

The Washington Post