Tag Archives: Occupational profiles

New App for Career Information Now Available

Icon for CareerInfo app

BLS has partnered with the U.S. Department of Labor’s Office of the Chief Information Officer to develop the CareerInfo app that is now available from the Apple App Store and Google Play. CareerInfo presents information from the Occupational Outlook Handbook, the most popular BLS resource for career information.

The CareerInfo app helps you find data and information about employment, pay, job outlook, how to become one, and more for hundreds of detailed occupations. You can browse by occupational groups and titles or search by occupation or keywords. Within occupational groups, the app allows you to sort by occupation title, projected growth, and typical education or median pay.

Future updates will add features that will let you personalize the app by filtering searches and by “liking,” saving, viewing, and comparing favorites.

Check out the new CareerInfo app and explore the occupational information and data produced by BLS. You’ll be glad you did!

Why This Counts: Measuring Occupational Requirements

You probably know that BLS publishes data and analysis about employment, unemployment, job openings, earnings, productivity, occupational safety and health, and more. But did you know we also publish information about how often workers have to lift objects; the maximum weight they lift or carry; whether they work in extreme heat or cold; and how much training and experience they need for a job? We call these characteristics “occupational requirements.”

What are occupational requirements?

The Occupational Requirements Survey provides information about the requirements of jobs:

  • Physical demands of work, such as keyboarding, reaching overhead, lifting or carrying
  • Environmental conditions, such as extreme heat, exposure to outdoors, proximity to moving parts
  • Education, training, and experience requirements, such as prior work experience, on-the-job training, and license requirements
  • Cognitive and mental requirements, such as interaction with other people, independence of work, and the amount of review

How did BLS get into doing this survey?

This survey is one of our newest statistical programs; we first published data on December 1, 2016.

The Social Security Administration asked us to help them obtain accurate and current data to use in their disability programs. They are developing an Occupational Information System, which will use data from the Occupational Requirements Survey. That means the survey is crucial for Social Security to manage their disability programs fairly and efficiently.

How can I use occupational requirements information?

Users of Occupational Requirements Survey data include:

  • Researchers exploring occupational change
  • Jobseekers and students
  • Government agencies evaluating skill gaps
  • People with disabilities and their advocates

Let’s discuss a couple of examples to show you what I mean.

Educational requirements

You may want to know the minimum formal education requirements for jobs. The survey has a stat for that! In 2018, a high school diploma was required for jobs covering 40.7 percent of workers, while 17.9 percent had a bachelor’s degree requirement. The chart below shows the percent of jobs by minimum education requirement.

Percent of jobs with a minimum education requirement, 2018

Editor’s note: Data for this chart are available in the table below.

We have more information on education, training, and experience. The 2018 news release showed that on-the-job training was required for about 77 percent of workers, and the average duration was 34 days.

We also have information on preparation time, which includes minimum formal education, training, and work experience a typical worker needs to perform a job. Preparation time between 4 hours and 1 month was required for 31.5 percent of workers.

Environmental Conditions

Is the noise level at your workplace closer to a library (quiet) or a rock concert (very loud)? For some jobseekers, understanding the noise level and other environmental conditions might be extremely important as they evaluate job options. The chart below provides examples of the noise intensity in different occupations.

Percent of jobs with noise intensity level requirements, selected occupations, 2018

Editor’s note: Data for this chart are available in the table below.

Examples of work environments with different noise intensity levels include:

  • Quiet: private office, a golf course, or art museum
  • Moderate: department stores, business office, or fast food restaurant
  • Loud: manufacturing plant, atop large earth moving equipment, or jobs next to the highway
  • Very loud: rock concert venues, working with jack hammers, or rocket testing areas

How do we collect job requirement data?

To collect job requirement data, our field economists ask business owners, human resource professionals, worker safety officers, and supervisors to collect requirements of work. Field economists do not use paper or online questionnaires to collect these data; instead, they rely on a conversational interviews and descriptive documents, such as task lists, to collect information on occupational requirements.

How are we improving the survey?

Survey scope: Since it began, we have continued to refine the survey to improve its accuracy. In the third year of collection, we redefined the survey scope to focus on critical job functions—that is, the reason the job exists.

Survey content: Beginning with the current sample in collection, we added questions about cognitive and mental requirements. The Social Security Administration asked for this change so we can provide information on the requirements for workers to adapt to changes in the pace of work, solve problems, and interact with others.

Sample: The survey sample is collected over a 5-year period. That will provide the large amount of data necessary to publish information about detailed occupations. We have revised the sampling process to ensure we collect information about less common occupations.

Website: We recently improved the web layout to make it easier for users to find the data they want.

Where is more information?

We have data for occupational groups and occupations through the Occupational Profiles. All data are available through the public data tools. For concepts, methods, and history of the survey see the Handbook of Methods or visit our homepage.

Let us know if you have questions or comments about occupational requirements:

  • Email
  • Phone: (202) 691-6199

Use these gold-standard data to learn more about your job requirements or to find out about new ones. Whatever your occupational requirements question, “We have a stat for that!”

Percent of jobs with a minimum education requirement, 2018
Education requirement Percent
No minimum education requirement 31.5%
High school diploma 40.7
Associate’s degree 3.8
Associate’s vocational degree 2.1
Bachelor’s degree 17.9
Master’s degree 2.3
Professional degree 0.9
Doctorate degree 0.5
Percent of jobs with noise intensity level requirements, selected occupations, 2018
Occupation Quiet Moderate Loud
Bus and truck mechanics and diesel engine specialists 49.0% 51.0%
Computer programmers 60.1
Construction laborers 48.6 51.4
Electricians 49.0 51.0
Highway maintenance workers 46.2 53.8
Home health aides 54.1 45.9
Library technicians 56.0
Medical transcriptionists 68.7
Paralegals and legal assistants 66.5 33.5
Welders, cutters, and welder fitters 48.2 50.9

Baseball, Hot Dogs, and Statistics

Summer is in full swing, which means that when I’m not talking about BLS data, I’m talking about baseball, something I could do full time. Luckily these two topics have a lot in common; nothing quite says statistics in the summertime like baseball does. We fans have followed baseball statistics for nearly as long as the game has been played. Teams today increasingly use statistics—or “analytics”—to decide which players to add to their rosters, who to play in any game situation, and even where to position fielders for certain batters. That’s a lot like the innovations BLS and the other federal statistical agencies focus on to help people make informed decisions for their families, businesses, and the broader economy.

I grew up a St. Louis Cardinals fan until the mid-1960s, when the lamentable Kansas City Athletics moved to Oakland and the American League expansion team, Kansas City Royals, brought winning baseball to Kansas. I had a second home, as it were, in the seats of Kauffman Stadium, or “The K” to us Kansas City Royals fans. Today I cheer for the Washington Nationals, having lived in the D.C. area for the past 25 years. Regardless of your favorite team, if you’re a baseball fan you know statistics are a huge part of how your team performs. While I could talk about George Brett’s batting average, home runs, or wins above replacement, let’s instead look at where America’s agency on labor data meets America’s favorite pastime.

Spectator sports employed over 144,000 workers in 2018. The map below shows the metropolitan areas with the most jobs in spectator sports. The New York-Newark-Jersey City, NY-NJ-PA metro area, home of the Yankees and Mets, employs the most people at 8,674. Spectator sports include all professional and semi-professional sport teams.

Employment in spectator sports by metropolitan area, 2018

Editor’s note: Data for this map are available in the table below.

Also consider the Occupational Employment Statistics program. In 2018, there were 27,780 radio and television announcers and 7,480 public address announcers. There were also 236,970 coaches and scouts and 19,090 umpires and referees in 2018.

Here’s a look at some of the occupations within the spectator sports industry:

Employment in selected occupations in the spectator sports industry, May 2018

Editor’s note: Data for this chart are available in the table below.

If you’re going to the game, the Consumer Price Index can tell you how prices have changed over time. For example, ticket prices for sporting events decreased 0.8 percent from June 2018 to June 2019. Over the same period, parking fees and tolls increased 3.2 percent and prices for food away from home increased 3.1 percent. At the low end of the increases is beer away from home—a modest 0.8 increase over the year.

Or maybe you just decide to enjoy the game in front of your new 80-inch flat screen TV. You aren’t alone. According to the American Time Use Survey, Americans spend, on average, 2.84 hours a day watching television in 2017. That’s almost enough time to watch your typical 9-inning baseball game.

Can we squeeze any more baseball out of BLS statistics? There’s wage data for ushers, occupational injuries for umpires, and productivity in certain recreation industries. But we’ll save that for another day. For now, sit back and enjoy the game. Play Ball!

Employment in spectator sports by metropolitan area, 2018
Metropolitan area Employment
Abilene, TX 14
Akron, OH 215
Albany-Schenectady-Troy, NY 537
Albuquerque, NM 241
Anchorage, AK 204
Ann Arbor, MI 84
Atlanta-Sandy Springs-Roswell, GA 1,948
Augusta-Richmond County, GA-SC 314
Austin-Round Rock, TX 1,071
Bakersfield, CA 229
Baltimore-Columbia-Towson, MD 1,872
Bangor, ME 32
Barnstable Town, MA 9
Baton Rouge, LA 15
Beaumont-Port Arthur, TX 5
Billings, MT 78
Birmingham-Hoover, AL 372
Bloomington, IL 54
Boulder, CO 22
Bridgeport-Stamford-Norwalk, CT 83
Burlington-South Burlington, VT 92
Canton-Massillon, OH 13
Cape Coral-Fort Myers, FL 718
Charleston, WV 118
Charleston-North Charleston, SC 256
Charlotte-Concord-Gastonia, NC-SC 6,081
Chicago-Naperville-Elgin, IL-IN-WI 4,763
Cincinnati, OH-KY-IN 1,473
Cleveland-Elyria, OH 2,019
Coeur d’Alene, ID 36
College Station-Bryan, TX 20
Colorado Springs, CO 214
Columbia, SC 383
Columbus, OH 813
Corpus Christi, TX 153
Dallas-Fort Worth-Arlington, TX 3,392
Deltona-Daytona Beach-Ormond Beach, FL 1,294
Denver-Aurora-Lakewood, CO 999
Des Moines-West Des Moines, IA 375
Detroit-Warren-Dearborn, MI 1,682
Dover, DE 222
Dubuque, IA 72
Duluth, MN-WI 75
El Paso, TX 269
Erie, PA 105
Eugene, OR 67
Evansville, IN-KY 209
Fairbanks, AK 29
Flint, MI 6
Florence, SC 43
Fort Collins, CO 4
Fresno, CA 542
Grand Junction, CO 67
Grand Rapids-Wyoming, MI 234
Great Falls, MT 72
Greeley, CO 96
Greenville, NC 54
Greenville-Anderson-Mauldin, SC 234
Gulfport-Biloxi-Pascagoula, MS 121
Hagerstown-Martinsburg, MD-WV 21
Harrisburg-Carlisle, PA 316
Hartford-West Hartford-East Hartford, CT 233
Hickory-Lenoir-Morganton, NC 111
Hot Springs, AR 665
Houston-The Woodlands-Sugar Land, TX 2,968
Huntington-Ashland, WV-KY-OH 27
Huntsville, AL 47
Indianapolis-Carmel-Anderson, IN 2,786
Jacksonville, FL 1,397
Janesville-Beloit, WI 52
Joplin, MO 11
Kahului-Wailuku-Lahaina, HI 3
Kansas City, MO-KS 1,737
Kennewick-Richland, WA 84
Lake Charles, LA 11
Lakeland-Winter Haven, FL 387
Lancaster, PA 160
Las Cruces, NM 18
Las Vegas-Henderson-Paradise, NV 835
Lebanon, PA 16
Lexington-Fayette, KY 1,556
Lincoln, NE 172
Little Rock-North Little Rock-Conway, AR 148
Los Angeles-Long Beach-Anaheim, CA 7,100
Louisville-Jefferson County, KY-IN 1,337
Lubbock, TX 12
Manchester-Nashua, NH 144
Medford, OR 23
Memphis, TN-MS-AR 1,349
Miami-Fort Lauderdale-West Palm Beach, FL 6,476
Midland, TX 99
Milwaukee-Waukesha-West Allis, WI 2,218
Minneapolis-St. Paul-Bloomington, MN-WI 3,337
Missoula, MT 20
Mobile, AL 79
Myrtle Beach-Conway-North Myrtle Beach, SC-NC 171
Naples-Immokalee-Marco Island, FL 23
Nashville-Davidson–Murfreesboro–Franklin, TN 721
New Orleans-Metairie, LA 1,522
New York-Newark-Jersey City, NY-NJ-PA 8,674
North Port-Sarasota-Bradenton, FL 549
Norwich-New London, CT 85
Ocala, FL 490
Ogden-Clearfield, UT 120
Oklahoma City, OK 1,227
Oxnard-Thousand Oaks-Ventura, CA 82
Palm Bay-Melbourne-Titusville, FL 301
Phoenix-Mesa-Scottsdale, AZ 4,398
Pittsburgh, PA 1,603
Pittsfield, MA 21
Portland-South Portland, ME 317
Portland-Vancouver-Hillsboro, OR-WA 1,042
Providence-Warwick, RI-MA 348
Raleigh, NC 1,339
Reading, PA 198
Richmond, VA 381
Riverside-San Bernardino-Ontario, CA 688
Roanoke, VA 98
Rochester, NY 676
Sacramento–Roseville–Arden-Arcade, CA 957
Salem, OR 56
Salisbury, MD-DE 138
San Antonio-New Braunfels, TX 757
San Diego-Carlsbad, CA 1,720
Santa Rosa, CA 223
Seattle-Tacoma-Bellevue, WA 3,176
Sherman-Denison, TX 6
Sioux Falls, SD 138
Spartanburg, SC 15
Spokane-Spokane Valley, WA 209
St. George, UT 20
St. Joseph, MO-KS 13
St. Louis, MO-IL 1,608
State College, PA 75
Stockton-Lodi, CA 130
Tampa-St. Petersburg-Clearwater, FL 3,302
Trenton, NJ 159
Tucson, AZ 83
Tulsa, OK 281
Virginia Beach-Norfolk-Newport News, VA-NC 148
Washington-Arlington-Alexandria, DC-VA-MD-WV 2,931
Waterloo-Cedar Falls, IA 65
Watertown-Fort Drum, NY 15
Wausau, WI 34
Weirton-Steubenville, WV-OH 18
Wheeling, WV-OH 47
Winston-Salem, NC 414
Worcester, MA-CT 97
Yakima, WA 21
York-Hanover, PA 156
Youngstown-Warren-Boardman, OH-PA 84
Yuba City, CA 34
Employment in selected occupations in the spectator sports industry, May 2018
Occupation Employment
Security guards 8,490
Ushers 7,610
Food and beverage servers 6,980
Groundskeepers 2,350
Parking lot attendants 1,850

Wage Information Yesterday, Today, and Tomorrow

On April 16, BLS reported that median weekly earnings for full-time wage and salary workers rose 2.7 percent over the year.

On April 30, BLS reported that the Employment Cost Index for wages of private industry workers rose 3.0 percent over the year.

On May 2, BLS reported that hourly compensation in the nonfarm business sector rose 2.5 percent over the year.

On May 3, BLS reported that average hourly earnings for private industry workers rose 3.2 percent over the year.

What’s going on here? Why so much wage information? And which one is RIGHT?

At BLS, we get questions like this all the time, and the answer is usually “it depends.” There is no one answer that fits every question on wages; there are just different answers depending on what you want to measure. People come to BLS looking for all kinds of answers, and we want to provide as much information as we can. Thus, we have many measures of wages (and other forms of compensation) — a dozen, to be exact.

Do you want to know about wages for an industry? An occupation? By location? For men and women? Based on education? Adjusted for inflation? Including benefits? How wages relate to spending patterns? How wages relate to worker productivity? BLS has it all, and more.

We have so much wage information that even we get confused. So we developed a tool to make the dozen wage series a little easier to understand. It’s an interactive guide that lists all 12 data sources and 32 key details about each of those sources, like how often it is available.

I can hear you now — that’s 384 pieces of information (12 x 32). I’m just looking for one piece of information, not almost 400. And how do you fit all that information on one page, anyway?

The interactive guide limits the display to 3 sources at a time — you pick the sources you want to see.

A table showing 3 BLS sources of compensation information and data characteristics available from those sources.

Or you can pick one characteristic, like “measures available by occupation” and get an answer for all 12 data sources.

A table showing the occupational information available from several BLS data sources on compensation.

This tool is on the BLS beta site. We want you to give it a try and provide feedback. Check it out and leave us a comment. Want to know even more? Watch this video that helps make sense of BLS wage information.

Earth Day 2019: Careers that Care for Our Earth

Next year will be the 50th Anniversary of Earth Day! The first Earth Day occurred on April 22, 1970, and I will show my age and admit that I clearly recall marching around my little campus on a blustery spring day in Topeka. Now, 49 years later, we want to celebrate Earth Day by highlighting some jobs that take care of our planet.

One way we keep track of jobs in the United States is through the Occupational Outlook Handbook which provides career information for hundreds of occupations. The Occupational Outlook Handbook was first published in 1949 to serve returning veterans of World War II. This year, the Handbook is 70 years old!

In honor of Earth Day, here are six earth-friendly career paths to consider:

Agricultural Engineers

What they do: Solve agricultural problems concerning power supplies, the efficiency of machinery, the use of structures and facilities, pollution and environmental issues, and the storage and processing of agricultural products.Female scientist in a field examining crops.

  • 2018 median pay: $77,110 per year
  • Typical entry-level education: Bachelor’s degree
  • Number of jobs 2016: 2,700
  • Projected growth. 2016–26: 8% (As fast as average)

 

 

 

Environmental Engineering Technicians

What they do: Test, operate, and, if necessary, modify equipment used to prevent or clean up environmental pollution. They may collect samples for testing, or they may work to mitigate sources of environmental pollution.Scientist standing near waterfalls and wearing protective clothing.

  • 2018 median pay: $50,560 per year
  • Typical entry-level education: Associate’s degree
  • Number of jobs 2016: 17,000
  • Projected growth, 2016–26: 13% (Faster than average)

 

 

 

 

 

 

Biochemists & Biophysicists

What they do: Study the chemical and physical principles of living things and of biological processes, such as cell development, growth, heredity, and disease.Two biochemists talking in a lab

  • 2018 median pay: $93,280 per year
  • Typical entry-level education: Doctoral or professional degree
  • Number of jobs 2016: 31,500
  • Projected growth, 2016–26: 11% (Faster than average)

 

 

Atmospheric Scientists, including Meteorologists

What they do: Study the weather and climate, and examine how those conditions affect human activity and the earth in general.Two meteorologists tracking a storm with satellite images.

  • 2018 median pay: $94,110 per year
  • Typical entry-level education: Bachelor’s degree
  • Number of jobs 2016: 10,400
  • Projected growth, 2016–26: 12% (Faster than average)

 

Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Installers

What they do: Assemble, install, and maintain solar panel systems on rooftops or other structures.Person wearing protective clothing installing solar panels.

  • 2018 median pay: $42,680 per year
  • Typical entry-level education: High school diploma or equivalent
  • Number of jobs 2016: 11,300
  • Projected growth, 2016–26: 105% (Fastest of the more than 800 occupations BLS projects)

 

 

Environmental Scientists & Specialists

What they do: Use their knowledge of the natural sciences to protect the environment and human health. They may clean up polluted areas, advise policymakers, or work with industry to reduce waste.Scientists taking notes while conducting research in a nature area

  • 2018 median pay: $71,130 per year
  • Typical entry-level education: Bachelor’s degree
  • Number of jobs 2016: 89,500
  • Projected growth, 2016–26: 11% (Faster than average)

 

 

 

Want more information? You can explore hundreds of occupations using our Occupational Outlook Handbook. For a larger list of new and emerging earth-friendly or “green” jobs, visit the Department of Labor’s O*Net Resource Center.