Tag Archives: Students

Teen Trends

Editor’s note: The following has been cross-posted from the U.S. Department of Labor blog. The writer is Teri Morisi, a supervisory economist at the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

A chart showing trends in teen labor force participation rates from 1979 to 2015 and projected to 2024

Editor’s note: A text-only version of the graphic is below.

In our nation’s changing economy, the pull of education is a key factor in how teens are fitting into the labor force. Back in 1979, about 58 percent of teens (16–19) were in the labor force, but by 2000, only 52 percent were. By 2011, after the recession, about 34 percent of teens were in the labor force. What’s behind this change? Most teens who do not participate in the labor force cite school as the reason. Consider these factors:

  • Higher attendance: In 2015, about 3 in 4 teens were enrolled in school. This proportion has trended up from about 60 percent in 1985, which is the first year data are available.
  • Time-consuming classes: After sleeping, school activities take up more time than anything else in a teenager’s week day. And high school coursework has become more strenuous. High schoolers today are taking tougher and more advanced courses, including those specifically designed for college preparation and credit. And most start college the fall after graduating from high school. In October 2015, about 70 percent of recent high school graduates were enrolled in college, compared with less than half of recent graduates in October 1959.
  • More summer students: Summer has always been the most common time for teens to work, but fewer teens are holding summer jobs: about 4 in 10 teens were in the labor force last July, compared with about 7 in 10 in July 1978. At the same time, school attendance in summer is on the rise. The proportion of teens enrolled in July 2016 (42 percent) was more than four times higher than in July 1985.
  • Higher education costs: College tuition costs have risen dramatically in real (inflation-adjusted) terms, so a part-time job is generally not sufficient to cover costs.  Teens enrolled in college therefore are more likely to cover costs through loans and grants: 84 percent of full-time undergraduates received financial aid in 2011–12, compared with 58 percent in 1992–93.

A chart showing college enrollment rates for recent high school graduates from 1959 to 2015.

Editor’s note: A text-only version of the graphic is below.

Teens who want to work face competition, of course. Labor force participation for those ages 55 and older has been growing; their labor force participation rate surpassed the rate for teens in 2009.

What does the future hold? BLS projects that the teen labor participation rate could drop further in 2024, to 26.4 percent.

Learn more about trends in teen labor force participation.

 

Chart: Labor force participation rates for teens ages 16-19, 1979-2015 and projected 2024
Year Percent
 
1979 57.9
1980 56.7
1981 55.4
1982 54.1
1983 53.5
1984 53.9
1985 54.5
1986 54.7
1987 54.7
1988 55.3
1989 55.9
1990 53.7
1991 51.6
1992 51.3
1993 51.5
1994 52.7
1995 53.5
1996 52.3
1997 51.6
1998 52.8
1999 52.0
2000 52.0
2001 49.6
2002 47.4
2003 44.5
2004 43.9
2005 43.7
2006 43.7
2007 41.3
2008 40.2
2009 37.5
2010 34.9
2011 34.1
2012 34.3
2013 34.5
2014 34.0
2015 34.3
Projected 2024 24.6
Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey and Employment Projections Program.

 

 

Chart: College enrollment rates for recent high school graduates, 1959-2015
Year Percent
1959 45.7
1960 45.1
1961 48.0
1962 49.0
1963 45.0
1964 48.3
1965 50.9
1966 50.1
1967 51.9
1968 55.4
1969 53.3
1970 51.8
1971 53.5
1972 49.2
1973 46.6
1974 47.6
1975 50.7
1976 48.8
1977 50.6
1978 50.1
1979 49.4
1980 49.4
1981 53.9
1982 50.6
1983 52.7
1984 55.2
1985 57.7
1986 53.7
1987 56.8
1988 58.9
1989 59.6
1990 59.9
1991 62.4
1992 61.7
1993 62.6
1994 61.9
1995 61.9
1996 65.0
1997 67.0
1998 65.6
1999 62.9
2000 63.3
2001 61.6
2002 65.2
2003 63.9
2004 66.7
2005 68.6
2006 66.0
2007 67.2
2008 68.6
2009 70.1
2010 68.1
2011 68.3
2012 66.2
2013 65.9
2014 68.4
2015 69.2
Note: Data beginning in 2006 are not strictly comparable to earlier years because of a change in supplement weights.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey, October Supplement.

Shape the Future with a Teaching Career

Editor’s note: The following has been cross-posted from the U.S. Department of Labor blog. The writer is Allen Chen, an economist at the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. This blog post was adapted from a Career Outlook article by Dennis Vilorio, an economist formerly employed by BLS.

If you dream of inspiring the minds of the future, consider teaching. Teachers give students the knowledge and tools to succeed both in school and beyond the classroom. It’s a smart career choice, too: Most teaching jobs pay above the median for all occupations ($36,200), and BLS projects there will be more than 2 million job openings between 2014 and 2024 for teachers at all levels.

Types of teachers

  • Preschool and K-12 teachers: These teachers are often generalists in lower grades but specialize in certain subjects in higher grades.
  • Postsecondary teachers: Commonly referred to as professors or instructors, these teachers work in community colleges, universities, technical and trade schools, and other institutions of higher learning. Besides instructing students, they conduct research and publish academic papers and books.
  • Special education and other teachers: These teachers work with children and adult students who have special needs, who want remedial help, or who need literacy instruction.

A day in the life

Teachers might be envied for the summer and holiday breaks they get, but the data show that they put in long hours preparing for their students. Many work on the weekends and outside the classroom after school by sponsoring student clubs or chaperoning events.

Some teachers are with the same students all day; others have a few classes throughout the day with different students. Many teachers say that challenges with classroom management, workload, and bureaucratic oversight are the most frustrating elements of the job. But they say the most satisfying parts are watching students learn, the variety each day brings, and working with supportive colleagues.

A chart showing the percentage of teachers working at each hour of the average weekday and weekend day.

Editor’s note: A text-only version of the graphic is below. The data are restricted to days that people who described their main job as being a teacher and reported doing at least one minute of work for their main job. Holidays are excluded from the data.

By the numbers

BLS data show variation in employment, projected job openings, and wages among teaching occupations. Wages also vary based on grade level and geographic location, but nearly all teaching jobs had median annual wages that were higher than the $36,200 median annual wage for all occupations in May 2015.

A graphic showing employment and wages for different types of teaching careers, including preschool, K-12, postsecondary, and special education.

Editor’s note: A text-only version of the graphic is below. Job openings are from employment growth and the need to replace workers who leave the occupation. The “other” category includes adult basic and secondary education and literacy teachers and instructors, self-enrichment education teachers, and miscellaneous teachers and instructors.

Becoming a teacher

Before leading your own classroom, you’ll have to learn to be a teacher. The skills, education, and other qualifications to be eligible vary widely — one good resource for finding requirements in your state is teacher.org.

For example, preschool teachers typically must have an associate’s degree, kindergarten through secondary teachers usually require a bachelor’s degree, and postsecondary teachers generally need a doctoral degree or a master’s degree in their field. None of the occupations typically require work experience in a related occupation for entry-level employment, but an internship or residency may be necessary as part of on-the-job training. And teachers in public schools usually need certification or a license.

There are plenty of ways to help shape the future, one mind at a time. Which path will you choose?

Learn more: More information about teaching or teaching-related occupations is available in the Occupational Outlook Handbook, as well as from the U.S. Department of Education and professional teaching associations. You might also qualify for loan forgiveness or for taking an alternative route to becoming teacher if you commit to work in a low-income community.

Graphic 1: What Time Teachers Work

Percent of teachers working, by time of day on days they worked, 2011–15
 Time of day Weekday Weekend day
4-4:59 am 1.2 1.1
5-5:59 am 4.3 1.1
6-6:59 am 21.6 5.5
7-7:59 am 69.6 13.6
8-8:59 am 88.1 20.6
9-9:59 am 90.7 31.1
10-10:59 am 91.0 28.6
11-11:59am 91.2 29.7
12-12:59 pm 88.1 28.9
1-1:59 pm 89.1 33.2
2-2:59 pm 89.7 32.8
3-3:59 pm 80.0 32.4
4-4:59 pm 47.9 34.4
5-5:59 pm 30.1 30.8
6-6:59 pm 16.0 25.5
7-7:59 pm 15.0 22.9
8-8:59 pm 18.2 27.4
9-9:59 pm 14.3 23.4
10-10:59 pm 7.2 14.0
11-11:59 pm 3.6 8.0
12-12:59 am 2.0 2.5
1-1:59 am 0.4 1.1
2-2:59am 0.3 0.7
3-3:59 am 0.3 0.9

 

Graphic 2: Types of Teaching Occupations

Occupation Number employed in 2014 Projected job openings, 2014-24 2015 median wages Typical education needed for entry
Postsecondary teachers 1,869,400 550,600 $64,450 Master’s degree or higher
Others, such as self-enrichment and adult literacy teachers 1,408,700 391,000 $30,760 Variable
Elementary school teachers 1,358,000 378,700 $54,890 Bachelor’s degree
Secondary school teachers 961,600 284,000 $57,200 Bachelor’s degree
Middle school teachers 627,500 175,500 $55,860 Bachelor’s degree
Preschool teachers 441,000 158,700 $28,570 Associate degree
Special education teachers 491,100 123,500 $58,500 Bachelor’s degree
Kindergarten teachers 159,400 56,100 $51,640 Bachelor’s degree

 

How People Use the Occupational Outlook Handbook to Search for Careers

BLS released our 2016–17 edition of the Occupational Outlook Handbook on December 17. It is one of the nation’s most widely used sources of career information. It provides details on hundreds of occupations and is used by career counselors, students, parents, teachers, jobseekers, career changers, education and training officials, and researchers. I have asked guest bloggers from the National Association for College Admission Counseling to share how they and their members use this popular resource.

For Gail Grand’s students, the college search process is about more than just picking a campus.

Teens complete an aptitude and interest test and explore careers before ever submitting applications. The strategy is a smart one. Fewer than four in 10 college students graduate in four years, federal data show. And as tuition rates continue to grow, extra years in school can often mean additional debt.

OOH-blog

Tapping into resources like the Bureau of Labor Statistics’ Occupational Outlook Handbook (OOH) helps teens make wise college choices, said Grand, an independent college counselor based in California’s Westlake Village. It also increases students’ likelihood of graduating on time, she noted.

An updated version of the OOH—an online resource that includes hundreds of occupations—was released today.

“It’s a great jumping off point,” said Grand, a member of the National Association for College Admission Counseling (NACAC). “I use it to go more in depth with students. We look at what the career entails, and which fields really appeal to them.”

Every OOH occupation profile includes on-the-job duties and typical entry-level education requirements. Students can also see if the number of jobs in the profession is projected to grow or shrink over the next decade, and check out the median salary.

When teens have access to the data at the same time that they are making college decisions “they become more informed consumers,” said Dana Ponsky, co-director of college counseling at Bullis School in Potomac, Maryland.

The OOH can also help students learn more about careers they might have otherwise written off. Ponsky, also a NACAC member, recalls counseling a student at her previous school. The teen had completed an online career assessment that showed he would be well-suited as a florist.

“He was very clear about saying: This isn’t me,” Ponsky said.

But by using the OOH, Ponsky was able to get the student to reflect on other occupations that might be of interest.

“I asked him to think about the fact that the flower business in the United States is one of the biggest export/import businesses in world,” she recalled. “That shifted the conversation. He used the handbook to investigate options in international business. Ultimately, that was what he pursued for undergrad.”

Both Ponsky and Grand agree: Not every high school student can (or should) select an occupation prior to college admission.

Nonetheless, OOH and other career exploration resources are an invaluable part of the college application process.

One of the OOH features that Grand finds most helpful is the “More Info” tab, which commonly includes links to professional groups associated with each occupation. She encourages her students to use those resources to pursue mentorships or job shadow opportunities.

“Lots of times kids are going to change majors, but I think when they have an idea of what they want before they go, they’re more likely to finish in four years ” said Grand, who worked as a school-based counselor for 22 years before founding her company, The College Advisor, Inc. “They have a purpose, and they have a passion.”

Visualizing BLS Data to Improve Understanding

If a picture is worth a thousand words, what’s the value of a striking, cool chart or map of some BLS data? At the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, we’re always thinking of better ways to help our users understand the information we produce. The global economy is complex, and the statistics to explain the economy can be complex too.

Data visualizations are one tool we use to present our data more clearly. What are data visualizations? They are any method of presenting numerical information visually—most commonly through charts and maps. Good data visualizations can improve understanding for all types of audiences, from students of all ages to experts with advanced degrees in economics, statistics, or other fields.

In recent years we’ve done more to include data visualizations in nearly all our publications. We have designed two of our publications to showcase data visualizations. One is The Economics Daily—or TED, as we call it. We publish a new edition of TED every business day, and we’ve done that since 1998. Each edition of TED typically includes a chart or map, sometimes two, with a few words to explain the data in the visualization.

Another publication geared toward data visualizations is Spotlight on Statistics. Spotlight tells a longer, more detailed story about a topic through a series of visualizations presented in a slideshow format. As with TED, Spotlight includes brief written analysis to explain more about the data.

Even our publications that feature mostly written analysis often include visualizations to tell a more complete story. Our flagship research journal, the Monthly Labor Review, has evolved a lot over its 100 years of publication to serve readers better; that evolution includes more and better data visualizations. Beyond the Numbers and BLS Reports often include visualizations as well.

We take pride in crafting our words carefully, but good data visualizations can complement the words. For example, during and after the Great Recession, the monthly Employment Situation news release has discussed the historically high levels of long-term unemployment. The number of long-term unemployed—those jobless 27 weeks or longer—has remained high years after the recession ended in June 2009. It’s one thing to read about long-term unemployment, but a good chart can tell the story even more clearly. long-term-unemployment

For an even broader perspective, we have a Spotlight on Statistics that examines long-term unemployment more fully.

Not only have we presented more data visualizations in recent years, but our visualizations also have gotten more sophisticated. A basic image can present information effectively. Take this simple map that shows the proportion of each state’s population age 16 or older that had a job in 2014. state-employment-population ratios

Now check out the interactive version of this map that we published in the March 9, 2015, edition of TED. When you hover over each state, more information pops up to show the state’s employment–population ratio in 2014 and how much it changed from 2013. When you hover over the items in the map legend, the states in each category light up more brightly to help you see the states with similar employment–population ratios. When you click on each state, you go to a webpage that provides even more information about the state’s labor market. Interactive features in our charts and maps give you the power to choose what information you want to see.

If you like the interactive features in our charts and maps, I think you’ll love the animation in some of our visualizations. Animation adds a time dimension to our data to let you see how measures change. For a great example of animation, see a TED we published last year that shows state unemployment rates before, during, and after the Great Recession.

The BLS website will feature even more data visualizations soon. Watch this space to learn more about them.

We share many of our data visualizations on Twitter, so follow us @BLS_gov. You also can sign up to receive email alerts for TED, Spotlight on Statistics, and our other publications.

And if you have created a great visualization of BLS data, please share it with us and the readers of this blog!

Introducing the new Career Outlook for students, jobseekers, career counselors, and others

I am delighted to introduce the new BLS publication Career Outlook. Formerly known as Occupational Outlook Quarterly, Career Outlook has a new name, a new look, and new features for students, career counselors, jobseekers, researchers, and others. Career Outlook provides helpful information about choosing an occupation, changing careers, understanding education and training options, and more.

You will find several kinds of articles in Career Outlook.

  • Feature articles present in-depth studies of topics such as occupations and industries, employment projections, and career planning.
  • You’re a what?” articles profile unique or interesting occupations, such as ornithologist and golf ball diver.
  • Interview with a…” lets you follow a worker’s career path in a question-and-answer format.
  • Data on display” showcases data in graphs, along with accompanying analysis.
  • Quick Tips provide links to helpful websites for scholarships and other topics of interest.

Career Outlook articles are written in straightforward language and provide relevant BLS data, where appropriate. A list of related content accompanies each article so that readers can get more information on the topics they want to see. New articles are posted to Career Outlook frequently, so be sure to check back!

You also can sign up to receive email alerts when new Career Outlook articles are published. Just type your email address in the box on the lower right side of the Career Outlook homepage.

Visit the new Career Outlook today!